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The Composition of Everyday Life, Concise, 2016 MLA Update
AQA UNIT 5 Biology synoptic sample essays or sample essay plans. HELP!! Watch. Essay? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge. The different ways in which organisms use ATP. How the structure of essay cells is related to their function. Value Essay Thesis? The structure and functions of lehman case study carbohydrates. Value Of Life Essay Thesis? How bacteria affect human lives.
The biological importance of water. The ways in which different species of organisms differ from zora neale hurston sweat essay, each other. Describe how the structures of different polymers are related to their. Why offspring produced by of life essay, the same parents are different in appearance. The importance of hydrogen bonds in living organisms. The movement of substances within living organisms. Zora Hurston Essay? How the structure of proteins is related to value thesis, their functions. Transition Word For Compare? The process of osmosis and of life thesis, its importance to living organisms. Energy transfers which take place inside living organisms. Inorganic ions include those of sodium, phosphorus and hydrogen. Describe how these and other inorganic ions are used in living organisms. Masters Engagement? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge.
AQA A2 Biology: Writing the Synoptic Essay by value of life essay thesis, Robert Mitchell. (they have some on ebay and i bought it cos i couldn't be bothered to plan the center for spiritual essays myself) span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Essay? And you could try and order this book because I reckon it would help you in terms of structuirng essays and it gives 20 examples written out: AQA A2 Biology: Writing the Synoptic Essay by Robert Mitchell. (they have some on or writing ebay and i bought it cos i couldn't be bothered to plan the value essay essays myself) does it have any gems/lifesavers about center psychology structuring the essay? !! span Follow 6 followers 2 badges. oh i wish i'd read this earlier and would have bought this book! does it have any gems/lifesavers about structuring the essay? !! span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. span Follow 1 follower 0 badges. Thesis? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Hello I'm doing AQA bio unit 5 and having troubles with the synoptic bit! always start each paragraph with a topic sentence - this makes sense really!! Just let the brothers risk case examiner know right from the off what that paragraph is value of life thesis about always link back to the question at the end of each paragraph to make sure you are staying on track if you are talking about animals then keep all the animal stuff together in zora neale, the essay before moving on to plant stuff - basically don't jump between plants and of life essay thesis, animals in masters dissertation on employee engagement, the different paragraphs be strict with your timing get the relevant information down, but don't waffle (a tip for the whole paper) remember to tell the story - but again no waffling!!
He says that students lose marks because they don't think to include the value of life essay thesis obvious. especially for the essay, for example, if you are talking about resume or writing enzymes then don't start the of life thesis story half way through, let the hurston sweat examiner know what an enzyme even is!! keep calm - if you're stressing then you are likely to forget everything you know because you are focusing on your stress. Just breathe and relax and you'll be surprised at what you remember do a plan. Even if it is value of life only a quick 5 minute plan, do one!! Even if you don't have time to finish the essay, the examiner will be able to see your plan and you could get credit for for spiritual psychology it (personally I find this helps a little too when you know that something needs to value of life essay, be included in an essay but you don't remember much about it other than 'it was something about T cells. whatever they are') span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. span Follow 1 follower 2 badges. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Hi!! I just came across a website that may help!! There is transition for compare a lot to read on there, but I found it useful!! There are lots (20!!) sample essays!! Hopefully you get a chance to value of life essay, read some and look at the structure of these essays as exemplars!! always start each paragraph with a topic sentence - this makes sense really!!
Just let the examiner know right from the masters off what that paragraph is about always link back to the question at thesis, the end of each paragraph to make sure you are staying on track if you are talking about animals then keep all the animal stuff together in the essay before moving on to plant stuff - basically don't jump between plants and animals in the different paragraphs be strict with your timing get the relevant information down, but don't waffle (a tip for the whole paper) remember to tell the transition word for compare and contrast story - but again no waffling!! He says that students lose marks because they don't think to include the obvious. especially for the essay, for value of life essay example, if you are talking about enzymes then don't start the psychosynthesis psychology story half way through, let the examiner know what an enzyme even is!! keep calm - if you're stressing then you are likely to of life essay thesis, forget everything you know because you are focusing on management case your stress. Of Life? Just breathe and relax and you'll be surprised at what you remember do a plan. Even if it is only a quick 5 minute plan, do one!! Even if you don't have time to finish the essay, the rob sitch examiner will be able to see your plan and you could get credit for it (personally I find this helps a little too when you know that something needs to be included in an essay but you don't remember much about it other than 'it was something about T cells. whatever they are') Hi.
I was hoping if you could get a new link as when I click it. it says it cannot be found. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and value of life essay thesis, useful place to hang out. 0 new posts Best universities in the UK for resume open days 2018 Started by: Danny Dorito Forum: Applications, Clearing and essay, UCAS Replies: 4 Last post: 2 minutes ago I'm SCARED! Will the cat flea get in my ear (it's somewhere on the pillows)? Started by: Romisa_lovesA7X Forum: Health Replies: 16 Last post: 5 minutes ago Failing first year Started by: MartyByrdeOzark Forum: Applications, Clearing and UCAS Replies: 1 Last post: 6 minutes ago Who else finds Autumn so depressing? Started by: Ambitious1999 Forum: Chat Replies: 14 Last post: 9 minutes ago Commuters flee train in center for spiritual, Bible panic Started by: Mathemagicien Forum: News and current affairs Replies: 13 Last post: 12 minutes ago EDEXCEL A-LEVEl MAATHS PDF Textbooks Started by: eltonfernzy Forum: A-levels Replies: 1 Last post: 13 minutes ago ukcat result and chocies of value essay thesis medical schools Started by: christineq Forum: Medicine Replies: 8 Last post: 14 minutes ago VPN : ( Started by: Anonymous Forum: Technology and computers Replies: 3 Last post: 16 minutes ago Mental Health Support Society XIX Started by: Sabertooth Forum: Mental health Replies: 243 Last post: 25 minutes ago multimedia and digital media Started by: pleple Forum: Computer Science and ICT Replies: 0 Last post: 36 minutes ago King's College London.
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Value of life essays
obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus praise the of life thesis growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Zora Hurston Sweat Essay. Spellman on the role of technological and demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the value of life thesis authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and psychosynthesis center psychology, previews from The New Atlantis . Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. Value Of Life Thesis. To save the enterprise, scientists must come out transition for compare and contrast, of the value thesis lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in management case study, deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is value essay thesis, turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.
From metastatic cancer to psychosynthesis psychology climate change to growth economics to dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and solutions is in many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and essay thesis, confusion. Along the way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Masters Dissertation Engagement. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to value essay escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and masters, its accountability to the rest of society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon value of life essay thesis, which rests the political and cultural power of science. Masters Dissertation Engagement. This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and of life thesis, economic growth. It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of resume, free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. “The free play of free intellects. dictated by their curiosity” So deeply embedded in our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of value of life thesis, science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to psychosynthesis for spiritual the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process.
Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to thesis since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in the purest realms of dissertation engagement, science” scientists would build the foundation for “new products and new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of value thesis, widely held beliefs about the purity of science. For Spiritual Psychology. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. Essay. More impressive still was the resume or writing increase for basic research at of life essay universities and colleges, which rose from $82 million to lehman risk management case $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.
The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the value essay thesis knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Outside efforts to lehman brothers risk guide the course of science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of value, dollars of public spending and the castle essay, decades of research by large teams of essay, scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.
And, speaking of startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Center For Spiritual Psychology. Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the value universe and about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to deliver a cornucopia of center for spiritual psychology, miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for believing that this amazing effusion of technological change truly was the product of “the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in of life thesis, the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the transition word and contrast unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Thesis. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the miracles of modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of transition, free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.
First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of most value to society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to solve problems especially those related to value thesis technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to resume go off half-cocked in of life thesis, ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and center for spiritual, this is the hardest and essay, scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and masters dissertation on employee engagement, more valuable for society today not by being protected from societal influences but instead by of life being brought, carefully and or writing, appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the United States would have all the technologies needed to win the Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations in thesis, this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?
How do you obtain high-resolution images of an or writing, enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the types of questions that the military needed to have answered, questions that demanded advances in value of life, fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for advances in the castle, basic research in fields ranging from high-energy physics to materials science to value of life essay fluid dynamics to molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the zora neale hurston sweat logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the thesis trajectories of artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the resume or writing science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by value of life thesis funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Why waste public money on transition word such a technology?
Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to planes powered by piston engines. For decades the Air Force and Navy funded research and value, development in the aircraft industry to continually drive improvement of jet engines. Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the transistor effect was discovered, could use the the castle rob sitch essay demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for value of life essay thesis smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of transistors. It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in the castle, his study of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the value of life essay thesis military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to create the technological and industrial backbone for the information age. And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and on employee, demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to value create during the Cold War continue to word for compare support the essay thesis American economy. To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of technological advance that were essential to the development of the iPhone, eleven including the dissertation on employee engagement microprocessor, GPS, and of life, the Internet can be traced back to vital military investments in research and resume, technological development.
Americans lionize the of life essay scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). The discomfiting reality, however, is that much of today’s technological world exists because of zora hurston, DOD’s role in catalyzing and steering science and technology. Value. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the players in the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the world go round. Center Psychology. The great accomplishments of the military-industrial complex did not result from allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity,” but by of life thesis channeling that curiosity toward the solution of lehman management case, problems that DOD wanted to value essay thesis solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of masters, Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and of life essay thesis, society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by zora hurston sweat no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.
She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for value of life essay thesis local patient groups across the nation an approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and zora neale essay, politics around the goal of eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. Value Of Life. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the National Institutes of lehman risk case study, Health’s National Cancer Institute. Value Essay. But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and or writing, she wanted to play an active role in figuring out how much money was needed for research and how best to spend it. She and her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and brought everyone together in value thesis, February 1992 to discuss what was needed to resume or writing find cures more quickly and how much it would cost.
Together, the advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of of life essay thesis, new money could be absorbed and well spent by masters the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an accident of congressional budgeting, it turned out that the only way to value essay meet the $300 million goal was to have most of the money allocated to the Department of Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. The initial plan was to or writing have most of the money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to value thesis discuss how best to spend the new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to influence the momentum of zora neale essay, science because priorities were established by value of life essay the bottom-up interests of the psychology research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into essay battle and we’re going to win the essay war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at an NBCC event at the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at first “terrified” to find herself working with the military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and value of life essay thesis, partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an activist and a patient, not a peer. But Gen.
Travis told her and her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in the final selection of scientific projects to neale sweat essay be funded, and eventually even brought them into the processes for reviewing the merits of various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and essay thesis, its dedication to solving the hurston sweat essay problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. Essay Thesis. And it didn’t take long for benefits to transition word appear. During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the value essay drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology, breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the openness of the DOD program to value of life funding projects like his that went against for compare, mainstream scientific beliefs was due to value thesis the patient-activists. For Spiritual. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to sit at the table and really be involved in the peer-review process in value essay thesis, a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in risk case, breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by the same DOD program and was approved by the FDA in essay, 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of scientists advising the program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for immunological approaches to curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to scientists alone.
But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. Psychosynthesis Center For Spiritual. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. Of Life Essay Thesis. What Visco and Gen. Or Writing. Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to of life thesis breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in other fields: the money and control needed to coordinate all the players in the innovation system and hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.
And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Visco that the masters on employee main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is “better than what’s happening at NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . it’s innovation within the existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the thesis scientists was the desire to “get above the center fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to figure out how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to value another. “We got tired of seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.
Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the castle rob sitch essay, the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. Essay. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to do this science and wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. Rob Sitch Essay. The systematic study of nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Value Essay. Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to dissertation scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and of life thesis, clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.
And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to transition for compare and contrast essay historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by value thesis studying phenomena whose existence was brought to light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to for spiritual improve the value essay thesis performance of or writing, steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to essay entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for psychosynthesis immunology and airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over of life thesis, the past two hundred years in large part because technology blazed a path for it to follow. For Compare Essay. Not only have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the of life thesis science being done. Transition Word. The electronics industry and value of life essay thesis, semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in our understanding of the behavior of electrons in the castle rob sitch, different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of computers beginning in the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to the demand for new types of theories and knowledge about how to value acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for resume or writing a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. Value Of Life Essay Thesis. The National Science Foundation funded basic research into this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to navigate the novel and expanding landscape of digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and whose economic and social influence is every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and word essay, telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Technology led; science followed.
If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Technology is what links science to human experience; it is what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by of life thesis science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the stimulation of rob sitch, antibodies into reliable outcomes: the light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in reality technology sets the agenda for of life essay thesis science, guiding it in its most productive directions and psychosynthesis psychology, providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Here is where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by “the free play of free intellects,” we give science a free pass to define progress without reference to the world beyond it.
But if there is value of life essay thesis, nothing by which to measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is zora neale hurston sweat essay, advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out thesis, that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for nearly a decade by growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to replicate only six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of lehman brothers risk management study, nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for value therapies to rob sitch block human inflammatory response showed that even though the therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the of life essay thesis trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map human brain function indicated that up to masters on employee engagement 70 percent of the positive findings reported in approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the overall quality of of life essay, basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Brothers Case Study. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to assess the of life quality of dissertation, one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to replicate only 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for women in their forties; and, of course, we’ve all been relieved to value essay learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the center growing number of studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in fact be the norm in some fields, and the number of scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of thousands annually.
While most of the evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from fields related to health, biomedicine, and psychology, the problems are likely to be as bad or worse in many other research areas. For example, a survey of of life essay, statistical practices in economics research concluded that “the credibility of the resume economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to be made of this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the American science establishment including the past, present, and value of life essay, future presidents of the National Academy of Sciences wrote in Science in or writing, 2015, “because they demonstrate the underlying protective mechanisms of science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the of life essay systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.
This picture of success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the results of risk management case study, research however imperfect are reliable in value of life, the context of the existing state of knowledge, and are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of psychosynthesis, our world and a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Value Thesis. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against science is straightforward: much of the for spiritual psychology scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is thesis, impossible to dissertation endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is of life, wasted on biomedical research that is unreproducible. Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.
Part of the problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the resume or writing science system itself. Academic science, especially, has become an onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of of life, startling and resume, newsworthy findings. Here’s how the thesis great biologist E. O. Wilson describes the life of an lehman brothers risk management case study, academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to essay thesis perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to conduct respectable research, and still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Resume. Fail to discover, and you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and that your future work will do the same.
To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and findings. Value Of Life Essay Thesis. Meanwhile, the peers who review funding proposals and masters dissertation engagement, journal articles are playing in of life, the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. To get the research done you need graduate students and transition for compare and contrast essay, postdoctoral fellows to of life essay do most of the masters dissertation grunt work of running experiments and collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the next generation of academic scientists behaving the same way. Universities competing desperately for top faculty, the best graduate students, and government research funds hype for the news media the results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to one study, the frequency of positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in biomedical research publications in 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to value of life thesis disseminate valuable information but to allow the psychosynthesis ever-increasing number of researchers to value publish more papers now on the order of neale sweat essay, a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. As of 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to worry about the value essay sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only essay lead to value of life essay thesis a “scientific doomsday” of transition for compare essay, instability and stress, and that exponential growth of the scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and quality, as the number of truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by the much more rapidly increasing number of thesis, merely competent ones.
One cumulative result of these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is zora hurston, a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the new result. Bias is an inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and it creeps into science in value, many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to the castle rob sitch essay mere wishful thinking. Value Of Life Essay. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the or writing scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the elite. Yet, to value of life essay thesis fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the lehman brothers case deeper and much more important point. The reason that bias seems able to infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and essay thesis, discipline. Nothing is left to keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. Masters On Employee. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by of life Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is being undermined by hurston sweat essay such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.
Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by value essay training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about lehman brothers case science and what Price called the value essay thesis “sheer mass of the or writing monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to be small, and in any particular area of research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. Value Of Life Essay Thesis. “But gradually the essay system became more professionalized, it got more and more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. So the value of life essay qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by the need to feed the the castle essay beast, and of life essay, the system got too big to succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for the quality and value of the science being done in her field. As president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on cognition and the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about where research dollars are flowing. Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. Lehman Management Case Study. “What the researcher really wants is value essay, something reliable that yields to their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of dissertation on employee, data, because you need to value thesis have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. What’s great about mice is that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to resume test specific hypotheses about, say, the genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of studying Alzheimer’s, and numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of value of life thesis, 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the one drug approved for use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.
And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of sweat, humans and essay, mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in resume, question, “because the process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the disease. Your treatment is value of life essay, focused on masters dissertation on employee how you created the model, not how the disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on the right path to understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for article titles or abstracts containing the words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in the NIH’s PubMed database yields over 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the number climbs to about 80,000. It’s a classic case of essay thesis, looking for your keys under the lehman brothers risk case streetlight because that’s where the light is: the science is done just because it can be. The results get published and they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and value of life essay thesis, interpreted in terms of other research being done in related areas one of psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology, those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of value, poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in word for compare and contrast, mouse brains.
Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. But in the meantime, the value of life essay thesis paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in transition word and contrast essay, turn. Value Of Life Essay Thesis. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the rob sitch essay response of an airfoil to value thesis turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in resume, the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).
In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the value essay thesis model can be applied to the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the models are extended still further to explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and essay, we’re trying to reduce it to of life some biological models, you have to psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for value of life essay inhibitory control. “Oh, and we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of transition word essay, tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in this space between the value of life essay thesis proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about neale hurston sweat essay what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. Of Life Essay Thesis. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the engagement way research gets structured, the findings that get profiled, the value of life essay person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and the castle essay, technology is replaced by the “free play of free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of of life essay, human bias. Lehman Risk Case. But human bias doesn’t have much room to get a foothold when research is value of life thesis, tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the on employee desire for lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.
But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the value of life essay thesis connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about or writing how society works (criminal behavior is caused by thesis brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the castle essay the task of value essay, finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of or writing, failure of pharmaceutical interventions for Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to assess the validity of the science or the assumptions underlying it. This is not to say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the experiments they now perform on value of life thesis mice. But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of masters dissertation, mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the of life essay thesis human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of values, assumptions, and ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.
Just as Derek Price recognized the threat to science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the threat of psychosynthesis, ideology in of life essay, science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the lehman management case study military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the essay Manhattan Project and was a tireless advocate for nuclear energy. Involved as he was in the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and address the complex problems of modernity many of which, of course, could be traced back to science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by the castle rob sitch science .” He called research into such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for precise and reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flux. Of Life. The objects and masters dissertation on employee, phenomena studied by trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about how to define and value, study them. This means that the objects and phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and the castle rob sitch essay, chemistry study objects that can be characterized by a small number of value of life essay, measurable variables. For example, in classical physics, once the lehman brothers case position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. (This is not the case in quantum physics, in which the position and velocity of value essay, individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of study whether the mass of an electron, the structure of a molecule, or the energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and unambiguously characterized in ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the same as every other hydrogen atom.”
This combination of predictable behavior and brothers risk management case, invariant fundamental attributes is what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of value of life essay thesis, science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in brothers risk study, the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of essay thesis, bird. Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from one day to lehman risk case study the next, from one place or one person to another. Their behavior cannot be described and predicted by the sorts of thesis, general laws that physicists and chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in which they are studied and lehman management study, the way they are defined.
Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to characterize the things they study, like using the notion of a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the health of an value essay, ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the on employee behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for example the value of life essay rate of accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of a certain kind of the castle rob sitch, cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of of life, tumor to metastasize in a mouse or a person. Word For Compare And Contrast. But these ways of naming and describing objects and phenomena always come with a cost the cost of being at best only an approximation of the complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to display loss of cognitive function with aging, and the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by physics and chemistry. This makes the value of life thesis mouse a useful subject for research.
But we must bear the cost of zora neale sweat, that usefulness: the connection between the phenomena studied in that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by value thesis building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of psychosynthesis, science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and value thesis, three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to debate the risks and promise of psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to “establish what the limits of scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is value of life essay, “not at all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for or writing “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. In fact, the great thing about trans-science is that you can keep on doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to a final or useful answer. In the value absence of a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in the real world of light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the mass of truths scientists create. This is why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the effects of masters dissertation engagement, salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and value, health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the motives and research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to the castle rob sitch essay Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?
Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of of life, a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and study, political debates over such questions seem to drag on value essay thesis endlessly, surely one reason is that we have the wrong expectations of science. Our common belief is hurston sweat essay, that scientific truth is a unitary thing there is one fact of the thesis matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on what aspects of an issue scientists decide to essay do research on and how they go about doing that research. Essay Thesis. There is no point in asking who is right in such cases; the best we can hope for lehman management study is to value essay understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about how to carry out research and analyze data, not to mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Consider the masters on employee engagement question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to value essay answer this question by looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and soil type to be carefully controlled.
Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and or writing, there is no way of adjudicating based on the data which of the two provides a better guide to the future. Sometimes the problem is not that it is hard to come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. Value. This is why science almost never provides a solution to psychology politically controversial issues. Essay Thesis. Usually it does the opposite, providing peer-reviewed and thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and assembled in whatever ways are necessary to for compare support the position and policy solution of your choice.
If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on essay thesis the risks and benefits of mammograms, their effectiveness is management study, more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and $15 billion of research to assess the safety of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. What we have, instead, is trans-science that “weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is thesis, not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the problem of poor-quality science is transition, showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Even as government funding for biomedical science in the United States equals that of all other fields of research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and corporate investments are extremely risky because of the staggering failure rates of value of life essay thesis, new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of technology. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to science comes from lehman brothers management areas of value essay, research where the stakes are high but the neale hurston essay validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of of life essay, which can advance the career of a researcher and attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.
Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on dissertation fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the value of life essay thesis discernible human impact on global warming. The minute you get into brothers management study questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and best pathways for value of life thesis addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Resume Or Writing. Mathematical models of future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and so the models spew out of life thesis, endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for claims and counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by psychology science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. If we were instead to exercise the of life thesis “selfless honesty” advocated by Weinberg and dissertation on employee engagement, own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to of life essay thesis an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of brothers case study, science are now staking their futures on what is value essay, sometimes called “big data” the creation of center, enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of information. So, for example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of of life, information, and psychosynthesis center for spiritual, shed light on the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and of life thesis, model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the masters Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the value same for psychosynthesis psychology ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to of life essay thesis the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in on employee engagement, the ocean and seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of of life thesis, environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and provides a test for the validity of new scientific knowledge. Masters Dissertation On Employee Engagement. Big data does the opposite, casting science into a sea of data with few constraints on where it might drift.
The difficulty with this way of doing science is of life essay, that for any large body of data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and psychosynthesis for spiritual, test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from essay thesis genes to education to management job stress to how fast you eat to of life essay thesis whether you were breastfed. Exploring the relations between even some small number of brothers risk management study, combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is thus extremely small, while the opportunities for value essay thesis introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of risk case, searching for a small number of possible true relationships in large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Essay Thesis. Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in rob sitch essay, most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at of life essay thesis your beck and resume, call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to value of life essay thesis lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for word for compare and contrast it to of life essay be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of which is itself unlikely to be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and resume or writing, a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to something else entirely, say, not having time to essay exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the street lamp, big data is masters, like looking all over the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.
So another reason why biomedical science is out in front of other fields in terms of revelations of irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on big data earlier than other areas of science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of management at Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to fail, given the limits of predictive science to solve problems in complex natural phenomena. [T]he experience of genetics in medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in thesis, scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to cancer is rob sitch essay, summed up in value thesis, a 2014 essay in lehman management study, the journal Cell by M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to value essay address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by the lie, enthralled by transition for compare essay the power of new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to gather, store, test, and analyze billions of terabytes of data about everything that goes on anywhere from Earth’s core to the human brain to the outer atmosphere and of life essay thesis, religiously dedicated to the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is always a step in the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the essence of science’s legacy.
Science is in a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the zora neale sweat essay resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for thesis Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to essay come up with practical solutions to essay thesis environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of heresy. “You want to actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from word for compare M.I.T., Marqusee too is a child of the lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the lone guy that’s brilliant.
That ain’t the value of life problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by itself to be particularly earth-shattering. If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for center for spiritual driving it toward that goal. Like Visco and Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of essay, such accountability has led to lehman brothers case study “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to value thesis “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in terms of the goal to which it is supposed to contribute. Or Writing. The types of questions Marqusee needed to have answered at of life DOD were essentially trans-scientific the necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from one situation to zora hurston essay the next. They were biased toward the local and of life, specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in the soil on military bases, he first had to understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and risk management, the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the essay thesis body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. Zora Sweat Essay. His office funded research that allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. He supported ecological research on how best to protect the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on military bases in of life, the southeastern United States and improved both the ecosystem and military training in transition, the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and better for dismounted training.
But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of value of life essay thesis, problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to realize that if he funded scientists and left them alone to hurston do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. Value. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to essay have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to themselves. Value Of Life Essay Thesis. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to develop indicators that could show when activities on resume or writing a military facility were having adverse effects on a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. Of Life Thesis. But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the researcher was simply identifying and measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and dissertation on employee, that in the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . Value Of Life Essay Thesis. “The scientist was looking at some very innovative biomarkers.
And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is always the resume or writing justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Of Life Essay Thesis. Not only would the or writing National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the new face of science. But if your constituency, to use Marqusee’s term, is society, not scientists, then the choice of essay thesis, what data and knowledge you need has to be informed by masters dissertation engagement the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to solve a concrete problem, rather than only to advance understanding. That’s why the symbiosis between science and technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and discipline for the science.
But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to value essay institutional cultures organized and transition word for compare and contrast, incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to reorient scientists would be to “pay them to care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to of life the Peace Corps before they go to graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. On Employee. Working in a small South African village for of life essay thesis two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on the world, and this made him skeptical of the culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the logic of the neale hurston sweat lie justifies “digging down deeper and of life essay, deeper on zora hurston sweat essay a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in how we do science.” In the value thesis applied physics Ph.D. Rob Sitch Essay. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an interest in value of life thesis, linking science to health care needs in poor countries. Neale Hurston Essay. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the value essay information that we get from masters dissertation engagement studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into value of life the social context, to or writing see what needs could be met with better information on blood; and into the science, to see what theories and tools could provide that information. So he talked to doctors who had experience working in Africa, and value of life, he talked to for compare essay scientists in his lab and elsewhere, and this eventually led to a convergence between the two: a technique to separate proteins using a simple type of essay thesis, centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and reliable diagnostic procedure.
Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. “This allowed us to or writing really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. In short, he made his research accountable to the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the value of life essay sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is asking for.
Of course ending breast cancer is lehman brothers study, a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to value of life diagnose sickle-cell disease. But that would seem to be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the the castle rob sitch essay system toward a solution. So Visco and her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and value of life thesis, start managing the science itself. Transition Word Essay. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for of life breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of rob sitch, scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the current state of knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to compare ideas and results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the process of developing and testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for ending breast cancer and essay thesis, staked its credibility on achieving at least major progress by or writing that date. The deadline has been much criticized by of life essay the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the predictable dismissal in a Nature editorial. Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.
The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Visco rejects the idea that after decades of research and or writing, billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to value of life essay thesis end breast cancer and zora hurston essay, save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of them from leading cancer research groups, to work on the Artemis vaccine project, now in thesis, its sixth year. Dissertation On Employee. “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for us,” says Visco. They have selected the antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to plan for clinical trials, to essay think about how they can ensure affordability and access if the or writing trials succeed, and even to explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Artemis Project, this one focused on stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in many ways. It is small, collaborative, and focused not on value essay thesis producing good science for its own sake, nor on lehman brothers making a profit, but on solving a problem.
It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from scientists. Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is built into the program. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at thesis the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the the castle focus and deadlines of industry with the openness and collaboration of academia. “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is thesis, what’s unique.” Above all he credits the dissertation engagement patient-advocates for understanding and driving the science in ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. Value Essay Thesis. “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in lehman brothers risk case study, the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the essay thesis vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the wrong question. The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the resume or writing lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to Our World. I s science today just the latest candidate for inclusion in the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by a daunting, self-interested inertia, and a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.
Yet science does have advantages over other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in which other ways of organizing research can be explored. Yes, the of life essay system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of masters dissertation on employee engagement, science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to do more than just add to the piles of value of life essay, esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to contribute something more, allowing the system to evolve, gradually, in a better direction. Indeed, an especially hopeful attribute of science is that it can be leveraged even by individuals and small organizations to lehman study have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and Kumar have shown. In the future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to of life the people and places whose urgent problems need to for compare and contrast essay be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of thesis, accountability to lehman risk case those for essay whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to understanding for its own sake. The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.
The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the resources and insist on its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in The Economist in 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and perhaps genomics), and that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the transition for compare sort of undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in value thesis, much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for psychosynthesis for spiritual public monuments, and value of life essay, wilderness protection. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to maximize the potential for neuroscience to the castle essay help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of most brain diseases. She thinks that much of neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is of life essay, convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is literally no evidence for this.” She wants to insulate the neale hurston sweat essay scientists that the foundation funds from some of the cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the rest of the body and other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the sweet spot for value essay thesis fundamental research.
But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to brothers management study pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of thesis, research on how best to resume or writing socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on that.” Perhaps for value of life thesis now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. Or Writing. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the value essay thesis course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of major medical advances. Advancing according to transition word for compare and contrast essay its own logic, much of value of life thesis, science has lost sight of the better world it is essay, supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to anything outside of itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the stunted imagination of mainstream science is a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the key to their success. Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is a professor of science and society at Arizona State University’s School for the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the of life essay thesis university’s Consortium for neale hurston Science, Policy, and Outcomes.
He is also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Technology and value of life essay thesis, a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. 440.
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The Composition of Everyday Life, Brief, 2016 MLA Update
Retrospectacle: A Neuroscience Blog. Adventures in Science and Ethics raised an interesting question today: How are graduate student getting their education funded? When I was first interviewing at graduate programs, I was astounded at value thesis, the variability in their offered “recruitment package.” It often had very little to do with prestige of the university, cost of living in the city, etc. But all of them offered something on which to live, tuition paid for, and health insurance. I feel quite comfortable on zora neale hurston sweat the stipend that Univ. of of life essay thesis Michigan gives me ( $25k) and transition for compare, cost of living in Ann Arbor isn’t so bad. My only complaint is no dental insurance, but hey, I’ll let that slide. #128578; So how, you may ask, are universities able to afford giving away free PhD? Or really, PAYING you to value essay thesis, get one?? Well, one answer is training grants.
The NIH gives large training grants to science/biomedical departments which can usually support 10-30 students. These are highly competitive of word for compare and contrast course. There also exist individual training grants called NRSAs (I’m in the middle of revising one right now), which a student can apply for directly. Of Life Thesis. Federal money can only go to neale hurston sweat essay, US citizens (in most cases), so international students will usually end up paying for of life essay thesis, their graduate education. On the other hand, while MDs are usually never subsidized, PhD/MDs usually are. So there’s a nice way to get your medical education paid for. Hurston Essay. NSF (National Science Foundation) and DoD (Dept of value essay Defense) grants are also a good way to get funding, although anything related to the military sometimes has string attached. Therefore if you are a US citizen, and you are PAYING to get a PhD, well stop. You shouldn’t have to. Either the word and contrast essay, school you’re at essay thesis, didn’t have the zora neale, clout to get a training grant (which is worrisome) or you didn’t do your homework. Either way, there’s a better way, and you’ll end up with very little student debt in the end of it.
this really only applies to science related PhD’s. many other graduate programs in engineering, computer science, and other fields don’t get the same level of govermnent based institution-wide grant support and therefore can’t offer the essay thesis, packages of stipend that science programs can. Psychosynthesis Center For Spiritual Psychology. Many graduate programs, if they can’t offer a paid stipend package will offer fellowship packages (stipend-like funding from privately set-up fellwships) or TA packages where stipend is payed as long as the value of life essay, grad students teach every semester, which is good cheap teaching labor for the university and still a decent deal for the student. Yes, very true Darkman. Social sciences etc will have a much harder time. Too bad there isn’t an “NIH-like entity” to help fund them along their way. Something which applies for most Ph.D. students is that the ‘real’, market-based price of Ph.D. classes is very, very low. I’d guess that 1% of Ph.D. students pay for their own studies, and perhaps 10% in hurston the liberal arts bring in money (grants, scholarships, etc.) from outside of the university. If you charged students (by means of loans) for their Ph.D.’s, there’d be nobody left, because nobody without a hefty inheritance could afford a Ph.D. If you priced the teaching aspect of Ph.D. students out on the market, you should be able to get all teaching done (5/5 load. Of Life Essay Thesis. 2 spring courses) by engagement, people with Ph.D.’s for $30K/year or less.
That’s less than $3K/course, vs (in theory, accepting university tuition) $7K/course on up for value of life essay thesis, TA’s. So the psychosynthesis psychology, universities are not using grad students because they’re cheaper. The way the of life essay, system works for teaching is rob sitch essay, that the grad students teach the course which the professors don’t want to value thesis, teach; the money is then diverted into and contrast essay the department, allowing the professors to teach more graduate courses. Even in lab-based programs, RA’s shouldn’t be that useful, compared to experienced lab techs who held Master’s degress, worked full-time, and had lower turnover. I am a foreigner, but I and many other foreigners in life sciences programs were getting paid at value of life, the graduate school in US that I went. But the flipside is that many schools I was considering to apply told me not to even bother to apply, because they cannot provide financial aids to foreign students. Also, I think some schools do accept applications from foreign students (and collect application fees), but in the end accept very few foreign students for this reason. Paying for a graduate school myself didn’t seem to be an option.
If they couldn’t pay you, they wouldn’t accept you. Also, the number of entering foreign graduate students at my graduate school changed a lot depending on the funding available. One year, they were able to accept very few foreign students, because they accepted too many in the previous year. But I guess I shouldn’t complain. It was very generous to pay for the education of foreign students. Like darkman commented, students in many other fields are not getting paid even if they are American.
It’s really exciting that you are addressing this topic, because people over on my blog are debating this issue of graduate school funding, like whether or not they should take up state-funded scholarships back home in Singapore. Zora Hurston. Unlike many scholarships here in of life essay the US, state scholarships come with strings attached, the most prominent of the castle which is a work period of 6 years immediately after graduation. Would you accept such an offer? “So how, you may ask, are universities able to afford giving away free PhD?” I think that’s the wrong approach (echoed at the end of the previous comment about feeling lucky that they payed for the education of a foreign graduate student).
Especially once you’ve finished your courses, you are a lab employee. It’s not a question of universities giving away PhD’s, they are paying for a service that is essential to their mission. If the situation was reversed and of life essay thesis, the norm was to pay for a PhD, I would ask why all these graduate students were giving away their valuable labor. I think the essay, graduate students are “forced” to work in the lab, because they have to thesis, get data for their thesis project, so that they can earn the PhD. ShelleBa, $25K? For a graduate stipend? Heck, I got $6,600 my first year that escalated to $8,900 by my last year – of course, that was in Confederate dollars in the 1860s. But, in all seriousness, how does your stipend compare to a entry-level technician position. In my day (*grabs hip from gout*), techs would make about $20-25K and postdocs about zora neale $18K such that they could get two or three of us grad students for value of life thesis, one tech. I suspect that your stipend is pretty close to a starting tech salary today, even in masters dissertation on employee engagement Ann Arbor. Do you find that some profs are not accepting new grad students as they’ve become more “expensive” and value essay, focus on zora neale hurston sweat essay a combo of of life essay thesis techs and postdocs who aren’t distracted by classes or quals?
Funding is something that I think that US schools do better than schools in psychosynthesis center other countries. One of the reasons that I decided on a American program (rather than to stay in Canada) is that American schools provide far more support for their students (and not just financial support). It ended being the case that my friends from my undergraduate and value essay, my MA days dispersed across a number of transition word for compare countries and with only value of life, one exception (I guess CUNY doesn’t fund as well as some schools) those of us who are going (or went) to the States got by far the most funding. I didn’t get quite as large a living stipend as you (I guess us humanists aren’t as high priority as science kids for funding) but I’m still (with consideration of my tuition waiver, something which most of my friends who decided to neale hurston sweat, go to Canadian or European schools didn’t get) getting more than twice as much funding as the people I know who decided to remain in Canada. It strikes me though that it’s actually a good idea for US schools to value of life thesis, fund so well. Zora Hurston Sweat Essay. It allows American schools to outcompete universities in other countries for attracting talent. Abel- I believe the starting tech position pays around $26 here, more if you have more training, of course. Value Of Life. So, yeah, not much higher than us grad students. My lab is unusually well funded (and I’m the only grad student he’s got) but I’m on the castle a training grant anyway so he doesn’t pay for me except meetings, etc. The Neuroscience program pays for value, the first 2-3 years for all incoming PhDs, and then the rest is up to the mentor. But, the Program also promised to help us find funding if our mentor was broke/something wild happened.
Which, they have followed though on with a couple of my friends. This makes the center for spiritual psychology, choice of labs easier, but money is ALWAYS an issue. But UM gets on its faculty if they don’t accept students in to their lab. Value Essay Thesis. I have no idea, but I might guess its leverage for transition for compare and contrast, tenure. Elia- I’d have to know more about the essay thesis, details of the transition word and contrast essay, “deal” but unless they were paying a 6-figure salary after graduation, I’d say hell no! Six years?
Thats awful. Of Life Essay Thesis. Even the US military only requires 3-4 years of well-paid service for center psychology, funding your entire education (and generous stipends). Value Thesis. I sympathize! There was an neale sweat essay, implication above that only DoD funding has strings attached. This isn’t correct.
NIH training grants also have strings attached. I had an NIH training grant as a graduate student and of life essay, I was required to commit to word essay, “paying back” one year of value essay thesis working in science for or writing, every year that the NIH funded my education. ( pretty reasonable, really ) This was true for the post-docs on NIH training grants also. I always wondered what would happen if I didn’t “do my time” working in my field. The paperwork I signed makes me I think I would have been legally obligated to pay the funds back to essay thesis, the government. But in practice, it was never an resume, issue. Interesting. Value Of Life Essay. I’ve never heard of a “payback” NIH grant, thanks for letting me know. The training grant I’m on doesn’t require that. I think another thing that helps grad schools pay stipends is M.A. programs, where students have to pay to get in. I don’t have a link, but I think Columbia once mentioned that a substantial portion of its programs’ stipend money came from psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology milking master’s students.
The stipend I’m going to get is about $19,500/year (in math, at Columbia). How did you get $25k? Michigan offered me about 14, if I remember correctly. Of Life Thesis. None of the schools I applied to dissertation on employee, had a problem with my being an international student, though some evidently had other problems with my applications… Hmmmm interesting…. I accidentally got ported here with a mis-click of the of life essay, mouse.
Anyway, the scholarships and stipends seems standard. I’m doing my PhD research Down Under (Australia) and I’m also a foreigner not from Australia. The scholarships are quite generous and oppurtunities are abound for foreigners here, that is transition word for compare and contrast, you must at of life essay thesis, least be within the the castle rob sitch essay, top 5% of value of life thesis their ranking process of course and in part the success of securing a scholarship will factor upon an individual’s hard efforts and ability to fish out projects with potential/preference by the granting body AND good support from an influential supervisor if you find one. But that said, because scholarships are kept separate for masters dissertation on employee engagement, the locals (Australians) and for foreign applicants, and the strong Australian spirit of giving everyone a fair go, if a candidate is qualified, the candidate will be awarded a scholarship and perhaps even permanent residency if you make the cut. And if we try hard enough, its not impossible, as I’ve secured 3 scholarship offers and selected one that i think is most promising. And surprisingly, I’m receiving a fee waiver that is worth AUD$22K and also a stipend of AUD$22K per annum. On top of that, the scholarship covers health insurance, dental, optical etc. and university amenity fees.
So its a fairly good deal. And if you manage your time well for your PhD project, you are allowed to value, take on word and contrast tutorials, grade exam papers, or tackle lab classes, which invariably pays you between AUD$25-33 by the hour. Its actually very generous for value essay, a foreign students whose intentions are to the castle rob sitch essay, concentrate on his/her studies, live-comfortably and value of life, save up for a rainy day, especially when the cost of center for spiritual living in Melbourne is cheap. And I think I am a few of the lucky ones as my lab group can afford to send me to the States for value, work with collaborators, and also present at international conferences, expensive ones being in the US like the upcoming ICAAC (US conference fees and air fare are exorbitant, and the the granting of visas are painfully medieval). Masters On Employee Engagement. On the thesis, other hand, most institutions, departments, and even local/federal government science initiatives offer travel grants that are up for grabs. drop me a email for lehman brothers risk, foreign students seeking an alternative to the States. I’ve been through the process and probably could drop a few pointers. P.S. I hold a PhD (Pharmacy) candidature and my work focuses on drug development vs. Of Life Essay Thesis. MDR bacteria and viruses, but I have connections before with infectious diseases, cancer, heart disease, and word for compare, neuroscience research groups from my network and of life essay thesis, previous PhD project fishing. All the psychology, best for potential PhD candidates.
I know it can be a despair at times, but never never give up trying. I suspect not all students have the same financial needs. seeking a PHD in MIS. Not all students have all these beneficial, and most especially not every school gave this chance to value essay thesis, all of their graduates. This captures my interest. I am interested to pursuit my PhD but I just don’t know how to do it without spending much money on it.
Coffee Company produces some of the on employee engagement, finest Arabica coffee in the world. Fundraising Campaign is developed by Coffee company raise funds by selling our freshly roasted premium coffee to your family, friends and local businesses to support our farming community by investing in education and value essay, medical services for our farmers and their families. Pls log on to http://www.coffeecompany.us/school-fundraising/ Shelley – I googled ‘How to dissertation on employee engagement, get your PhD paid for’ and your site was the first that popped up. It seems this discussion was some time ago and I am most likely pursuing an administrative and policy studies doctorate (http://www.education.pitt.edu/AcademicDepartments/AdministrativePolicyStudies.aspx), but thought of all people you would have some great input after reading your blog. Any advice would be much appreciated. New comments have been temporarily disabled. Please check back soon. The End of ‘Retrospectacle’, the Beginning of value of life thesis ‘Of Two Minds’ Retrospectacle has been a wonderful hobby and outlet for my writing for almost three years.
I A Valentine to all Scienceblogs readers, from Pepper! (Thanks to Aaron for the picture!) Get Your New Neurons Here! (In Plush) Ok, ok, I know I’m supposed to and contrast, be on hiatus here. But how could I resist
As you all know, Steve and I are merging blogs into of life thesis the aptly-named ‘Of Two Minds’ Sound can have very powerful effects on resume or writing people, but can it really get you high? Thats
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A daughter's college essay about something painful in value thesis, her life. Risk Management Case Study? Someone once told me that hate is a strong word. I completely agree. There are not many people in value of life, this world that I can honestly say that I truly hate. It takes a great deal of hurt, anger, and deceit to hate someone.
But when you think about resume it, in many ways hate and love come hand in hand. People go through hard times and everyone has problems of their own. But does that give you a reason to “hate” someone? When I hear the word hate, only a few things come to mind and one of those things is my Dad. There are two sides to my Dad, one that I love to value death, and one that I hate from the or writing, bottom of my heart. As a kid, my Dad lived a pretty average life. He lived with his Mother and Father and of life essay thesis his two brothers. He grew up with money, went to school, had friends, a lob… a rather average life. Zora Essay? The only thing that was not average about of life essay his life was that he had an masters dissertation alcoholic in the family. His father.
Growing up with an alcoholic in of life essay, the family increases the chances of becoming an alcoholic by 50 percent. When my parents got married, they promised each other that they would not let alcohol get in the way of anything because they knew from experience how terrible that “disease” could be. Being an alcoholic is considered a disease and it is something that many people simply do not understand. They don’t know how awful it can be and how many people it can effect outside of themselves. Transition Word For Compare And Contrast? Unlike them, I know exactly how awful it can be. My Dad is an alcoholic. Both of of life my Dad’s brothers were alcoholics when they grew up, just as their own father was. Their lives changed because of this and as of today, they are both recovering alcoholics. They know what it’s like, they know about the struggles that come from it, and they know it because they experienced it. Like my father, I lived a more than average life. I lived with my two parents, brother and sister.
I played sports ever since I was four years old, I did almost every extra curricular activity I could and the castle I successfully made it through twelve years of of life essay schooling. On Employee Engagement? We always had money, never a ton, but always enough to get by without worrying. My parents were very supportive to my siblings and of life essay I and masters dissertation on employee engagement were always there for value of life, us. My parents were never drinkers, except for the few beers my Dad would drink on the occasional Sunday. It’s hard to say when my average life turned upside down, but my last memories started sometime during my high school career. My Dad and I always got along so well. We never argued and he was such a kind person. He was always willing to be there for me and transition word and contrast always encouraged me to try harder. Once he started drinking was when our relationship changed completely. I don’t fully recall how old I was when he began drinking more heavily because he was exceptionally discreet about essay thesis it.
I was also very nave. My Dad must have been very secretive about this because he got it past my brother, my sister and I for years, not so much my mother. My most distant memory of his drinking is from my junior year in high school. He worked everyday and center as the time progressed, he began never making it home for dinner. Value Of Life Thesis? He began coming home later and later, each day stumbling a little more than usual. He was nasty.
He was mean. Word And Contrast? He was cruel. He was not my Dad. Although he was never a violent drunk, he displayed his wickedness through his words. He was constantly angered by the fact that my family and essay thesis I were always in transition word and contrast essay, his face about his drinking. He began avoiding us at of life thesis all costs. He was never around and when he was, he was always doing his own thing. Resume? By my senior year in high school, our relationship had completely fallen apart.
I refused to acknowledge him when we was drunk and I couldn’t even bare to be around him. It wasn’t until one average night of of life essay thesis my senior year that the hate that I feel for lehman brothers risk management case study, him today began to kick in. It was probably eight or nine o’clock at value night when he came home. He claimed he was “working late” but we all knew that wasn’t true. He was at the bar. I was in my room doing homework while the for spiritual, rest of my family was downstairs watching TV before bed. I heard screaming and yelling back and forth between everyone, so I went to see what was the value thesis, matter. Essay? My Dad’s eyes looked as though they had a layer of water over them. I have never seen them so glossy and bloodshot before. Of Life Essay Thesis? I started to yell at him and he began getting angry with me and was screaming at the top of his lungs as his face turned bright red.
This was the first time in all my life where I can remember him actually screaming at me and getting in my face. Psychosynthesis For Spiritual Psychology? He was not my Dad. I was filled with rage and hate. It was that night that I lost all respect for him. Value Of Life Essay? I was tired of his stumbling through the door every night and not being there for his family anymore. I was tired of brothers management not having my Dad. I wanted everything to go back to the way they used to be. It was that night that I slapped my father in the face.
Not in a million years would I ever think that I could be brave enough to slap my father in value of life essay, the face, but I did. For Spiritual? The way I look at it is that I didn’t hit my father in the face; I hit the man that I didn’t know in the face. I hated that man with all of my heart. Today, 43% of Americans have been exposed to of life essay thesis alcoholism in their families. 43% is psychosynthesis for spiritual, just a number to the 57% percent of people who haven’t experienced it. Alcohol is a depressant and should be drunken cautiously. Studies have been proven that alcoholism is a disease. I believe it to be true but I also feel as though diseases are not something that you can “choose” not to have. Being an alcoholic is something that you can choose not to be. Scott Russell Sanders stated in value of life essay, his essay “Under the Influence”, that “He drank because he chose to, pure and resume simple.” Like my Dad, his was also an alcoholic.
If one chooses to drink, then they will drink. Bottom line. My Dad chooses to drink. The night I hit my father, my outlook on everything changed. Of Life Thesis? Watching him speak disrespectfully to my Mom, as well as my brother and sister truly hurt me. I was in shock. I continued to finish my senior year, while I watched my family feel the pain from transition and contrast, my Dad.
Of course I felt it too, but I always stayed away. I avoided seeing my Dad in that state of mind. I did everything I could to stay out of the value of life essay, house. Today, I somewhat regret not getting involved as much as I should have. Neale Hurston Sweat? Even now, being away at college, I again am away from it all. I despised seeing my own father like that and I loathed the smell that flowed out off of of life essay his mouth.
I didn’t like one thing about him. Transition Word For Compare And Contrast Essay? I’m not a person that always expresses their feelings to other people and this subject is one that I rarely ever talk about. My fathers drinking has broken me down many times to of life essay thesis the point where I have cried myself to sleep. It has broken my heart. It has taken away my kind, loving father that I once had. I believe that from every situation, leaves a place for someone to grow. Resume? Dwelling over something should not be how people live their lives.
More so than me, this has affected my brother, sister and value of life mostly my Mom. Seeing the the castle essay, hurt and anguish on my mothers face on a daily basis absolutely kills me. I feel for value of life essay thesis, her more than I do myself and zora hurston sweat I would do anything to make things better for her. My Dad, being an alcoholic is essay, one of the most stubborn people I know and he refuses to quit drinking. Knowing he is ruining my family a little more each day, he still continues to psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology drink. As of today, February 19, 2010 my Dad still drinks. He is choosing to tear our family apart. Until he stops drinking, I will not forgive him for what he has done.
Everyone deserves a second chance; all he needs to do is prove that he wants one. In my eyes, he is a drunk and I do not consider him my father. He has not been here for me for the last two years, if not longer and I am choosing not to be here for him as long as he is going to drink. Of Life Essay Thesis? The day I hit him will live with me forever. Brothers Case Study? The fact that I don’t talk to him and value of life essay thesis don’t give him the zora sweat, respect that a daughter should give to her father, must deep down bother him greatly. I know that my father misses me as well as everyone in my family, but right now alcohol is his first priority. Value Of Life? If he ever realizes what is important to him, he will hopefully get help and go back to being the resume, father that I once knew, loved and respected.
Until then, my feelings of hate, are too far overpowering. I lost my father to alcohol. Value Of Life Essay Thesis? Have you suggested your daughter check out ACOA? What did your husband say when you shared the. Very sad, the pain we inflict on others with our desire to drink. And Contrast? © 2017 Sober Recovery.
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The Composition of Everyday Life, Brief, 2016 MLA Update
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her. Except when she got frustrated. I first noticed her when I overheard her quarreling with a nurse. A few months later I heard her accuse another student of sabotaging her work. And then one morning, I saw her storm off the of life essay wards after a senior doctor corrected a presentation she had just given. The person I like most The person who is the psychosynthesis center for spiritual dearest to me in of life thesis, this whole world is my mother, and I can explain many reasons behind that. For Compare Essay. Firstly, my mother loves me a lot. Her love for me is so pure.
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According. Views on College Education One could think of multiple reasons as to why they need a college education. Louis Menand introduces three theories that concern today’s college education in the article “Live and Learn: Why we need college”, found in the castle, The New Yorker. Of Life. As a former Ivy League professor, Menand. are our future. I have to say this is one of the statements that I have heard most over zora essay the last eighteen years of of life thesis my life. As I go on I come to figure that it is the castle rob sitch essay, true.
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A Good Fit Essay of lehman risk study Someone Else I Read. As I write this, I think to myself, What the heck am I doing? This is crazy, isn't it? Am I really doing this. As I hit send on my FIT application, I realize that there is no turning back. The fact of the value of life thesis matter is, while my Wall Street job is probably what most people think I should be doing, I know.
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