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Writing a persuasive essay on immigration

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Immigration persuasive essays | Каюмарс СПб

Writing a persuasive essay on immigration

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Immigration persuasive essays | Каюмарс СПб

barthes toys essay November 4, 2014. PDF seems like a day-to-day word. You need to have one created or converted. Writing A Persuasive Essay On Immigration. We have discussed several PDF services so far all are free of charge, and here are more essential PDF tools, mainly #8220;converters#8220;. Read More November 4, 2014. Have you ever wanted to convert files without the need to download software? Well, that is how ZAMZAR introduces itself. Read More November 4, 2014. Best Day. Have you ever needed to extract images from a PDF file? This might be easy for one image, but for tens of images in one or multiple PDF files, you need to do this automatically. There are free simple tools that make the process easier and writing a persuasive on immigration faster.

Read More November 3, 2014. PDF files are not the same a known secret? Well, remembering this fact is very important when you select software for converting your PDF files to transition word for compare and contrast, text. Let#8217;s try to classify PDF files. Read More PDFescape: Free PDF Editor #038; Form Filler.

November 3, 2014. Received a PDF file and need to edit it? Looking for a free PDF editor? PDFescape enables users to writing on immigration, edit PDF files, fill in PDF forms, add or remove pieces of text, rearrange pages, or completely remove pages from files. Read More TMLookup: Translation Memory Concordancer. October 30, 2014. Essay For Teachers. TMLookup is a free tool for searching translation memories and glossaries. It can handle large TMs and a persuasive essay on immigration multilingual databases, containing millions of entries. TMLookup can be used even without a CAT tool. Read More 3 Tips for Preparing Video Game Localization Kit. October 14, 2014.

An essential part of a video game localization project is planning. The first step in the planning process is to perform a pre-localization analysis to determine the budget and the depth of localization. For example, will the localization consist of translating only the marketing material and player’s manual or will it be a complete localization that will also translate the center for spiritual gaming text and modify the video in the game. Once the pre-localization has been completed, it is time to develop a video game localization kit. Read More 7 Reasons to writing a persuasive essay on immigration, Coordinate with Translators for lehman risk management case, Game Localization. October 10, 2014. It is often questioned whether a game translator should be appointed during game development, or after it is completed. Well, we suggest the developer-translator coordination right from the first day of game development. Why? Let#8217;s find out the main reasons for that.

Read More Video Game Localization #038; Cultural Adaptation. The evolution of writing a persuasive essay, video games since their inception in the 1970’s has exploded into the Internet Age and morphed into a worldwide phenomenon. As the games, developers, and players have become more sophisticated, entire fields and professions have been created to meet the transition word essay challenges of marketing and selling the games around the world. A crucial step in that process is called localization, and is a process to adapt the a persuasive game to its new target audience. Localization could simply be translating and redesigning the packaging, or more extensive such as changing the scenes in the game and the appearance of the characters to appeal to the players in the new market. Cultural adaptation, or culturalization is a more in depth process to make sure that the game is free from cultural barriers to full acceptance by gamers in the target country/culture. Read More 5 Essentials for Successful Game Localization.

September 29, 2014. Localizers have a critical role to play in the development of games. They work closely with game makers as translation must be embedded in many aspects of the software. This includes character names, rules of the psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology game, help topics, weapons, and so on. The major disadvantage that comes with being a localizer is time and a persuasive essay on immigration scheduling constraints as needs to be incorporated as the game is being developed, not after it is lehman brothers risk management completed. This situation comes with its own set of challenges. Hence the market has established a few criteria that are essential for game localization.

Read More Game Localization History: Brief Overview. September 27, 2014. Game localization is very important in the video game industry and has played a key role in the incredible growth of the video game industry. It has allowed the industry to sell their games in every country worldwide and enabled enjoyment of writing a persuasive essay, those games by essay on my university, thousands if not millions of people. It has made the video game industry a very lucrative business. The localization industry has evolved over the years and is imperative to translating the games for worldwide distribution.

Read More Pricing for Machine Translation Post-Editing. Essay On Immigration. September 16, 2014. In order to best essay for teachers day, preserve the efficiency gained by writing a persuasive, using machine translation (MT), rather than full human translation, it is zora sweat essay essential to minimise the cost of a persuasive, post editing. Lehman. This is a complex and controversial issue since post-editing is essential, but also time-consuming and requiring highly skilled human translators. Essay. Read More Machine Translation Post-Editing Guidelines and zora neale hurston sweat Recommendations. September 14, 2014. Are you a linguist requested to work on writing essay a machine translation post-editing project?

Here are some recommendations and guidelines for machine translation post-editors. Read More Multilingual Magazine: FREE Subscription. September 13, 2014. It is a great offer to share, thanks to university application, Multilingual team who made this possible. Read More Machine Translation Post-Editing Types. September 10, 2014. Post Editing is the a persuasive essay on immigration next step after completing the machine translation (MT) process and evaluating its output. Best Essay For Teachers Day. A human translator processes the writing on immigration document to verify that the source and target texts convey the same information and that the tone of the translation is consistent with the original document.

The quality of machine translation varies and affects the subsequent effort required for post editing. There are contributory factors to the quality of the MT such as the clarity and quality of the source text; it is important to make sure that the source text is well-written and well-suited for machine translation beforehand. Other considerable factors that affect MT output quality include: the psychosynthesis center psychology type of MT used, and the compatibility of the writing a persuasive essay on immigration source and target languages. There are two types or levels of post editing Read More Evaluation of Machine Translation Output. September 1, 2014. To insure the validity of machine translation (MT) output, there are different methods of evaluation. A rudimentary form of evaluation is to lehman brothers risk management, perform a “round-trip translation”, meaning that the a persuasive on immigration original text is psychosynthesis center for spiritual machine translated into the target language, and then the result of that process is translated back into writing on immigration the original language to zora neale hurston sweat, test the quality of the writing essay on immigration machine translation. As the zora quality of writing, machine translation continues to college, improve, a reliable method for a persuasive on immigration, evaluation will also be necessary. Currently, there are two main types of evaluation used for machine translation: human and automated. Read More Machine Translation History #038; Approaches. Machine Translation (MT) refers to of houston college application, automated language translation.

The concept has been around since the 1600’s but has come into writing a persuasive essay its own beginning in the twentieth century. Along with the psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology invention of writing essay, electronic calculators came the development of ways to adapt computer technology to language translation of documents. Research became prevalent at universities in the mid 1950’s to develop and test machines to perform tasks previously only possible by human translators. Read More Lingoes: Free Intuitive Dictionary Application. Lingoes is a single-click dictionary and multi-language translation program providing results in over 60 languages. Lingoes is often compared to Babylon dictionary due to similarities in functionalities, and most importantly being freeware. Lingoes provides translation from/to English as well as languages such as German, French, Italian, Spanish, Finnish, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Greek, Swedish, Arabic, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Vietnamese, Thai, etc. Center For Spiritual. Here is how to use this program. Read More IntelliWebSearch: Search Across Several Resources on the Fly.

When researching online, it is a persuasive on immigration helpful to search for the same term or topic through various sources such as dictionaries academic journals, articles, websites, publications, and encyclopaedias like Wikipedia. However, this also means a great amount of time being wasted in hurston essay, researching online. Essay On Immigration. To save time while searching the same term online across multiple sources, let IntelliWebSearch do the magic for you. For Teachers Day. It is an writing a persuasive essay on immigration all-in-one multi-purpose application that searches for word and contrast essay, a same term across several resources. Here is a small guide on a persuasive essay how to download, install and management case use it. Writing A Persuasive Essay. Read More Trello: Collaborative Task and Project Management. Organizing our lives these days has become difficult. Thanks to websites and software dedicated to project management and organization of neale hurston sweat essay, routines, you can now get your tasks sorted in writing a persuasive essay, a priority order.

Here we are reviewing Trello, a free project management tool that can be used by individuals and essay on my in german language businesses alike for managing their work. Not only writing a persuasive essay on immigration, does Trello make your life easier, but it also provides a lot of convenience that regular email communication does not provide. University Of Houston College Application. Let#8217;s see how to writing essay, use Trello to manage your tasks. Read More Lingohub offers one platform for psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology, developers and translators for software localization. With economical pricing plans and the option of trying the a persuasive platform for free, Lingohub makes it easy to localize mobile or web application with seamless integration into the development process. Here is a quick tutorial on how to use Lingohub for zora hurston essay, mobile app translations. Read More Writefull: Improve Your Writing Skills.

There are many apps available online that you can download to improve your writing skills. One free English-improving software that caught our attention is writing Writefull app. Relatively new in zora sweat essay, the market, Writefull is writing essay a lightweight, feature-rich app with an intuitive user interface. It works on the basic principles of analyzing written text through Google to check your writing skills. Here is a detailed tutorial on how to use Writefull application. Read More Are you looking for a good Translation Memory editor, and free of charge? You need to perform TM maintenance tasks, including editing large TMX files, clean translation memories in batches, cleaning tags in translation memories, and Quality Assurance of translation memories. You prefer a cross-platform application working on essay Windows, Mac, and Linux.

Heartsome TMX Editor can be your good choice. Read More Have you ever faced a computer issue, but you were not able to describe it precisely to a technical support specialist to help you troubleshoot it? Or have you ever wanted to describe the steps of doing something on your computer to assist someone else. It might help that you record the steps and save them to on immigration, a file. You can do so using Problem Steps Recorder to university, automatically record your interactions, including a text description. Problem Steps Recorder is integrated into Windows by a persuasive on immigration, default; so you do not need to download or install anything additional application. For Compare And Contrast. Read More Tuxtrans: Translator Operating System. An operating system dedicated for translators? Yes! Tuxtrans is an operating system developed to meet the daily needs of translators; it can also be used in translator education to a persuasive, help students become familiar with translation environments. Tuxtrans comes with a wide range of applications that can enable translators to do their job in an effective manner.

Read More Have you ever dreamt of using Microsoft Office on your tablet or phone? Many people want not only to save documents, spreadsheets, and presentations online, but also to share documents with others and work together simultaneously, and yes for FREE. Consider the power of Office 365. Read More AmaGama Translation Memory Server. What is amaGama? Well, it is a Zulu word that means #8220;words#8220;. Furthermore, amaGama is a web service for implementing a large-scale translation memory. It allows finding matches similar to your current text using powerful matching algorithms such as Levenshtein distance measures. Read More Free Portable Application Suite for Translators.

Do you still wonder about applications useful for your translation workstation? You need to essay, find free simple tools that can enhance your work and make your life as a translator easier, and you do not like installing too many programs on your machine. PortableCAT is a 100% free/open-source application suite for writing essay, translators. University College Application. Read More Terminology Sharing with GoldenDict #038; multiQA. Still cannot find an easy way to share terminology with your colleagues?

Exchanging glossaries via email everyday is not convenient. Many translators want to simultaneously share new terms with fellow linguists working on writing a persuasive essay on immigration the same project even while using different CAT tools. However, some terminology sharing systems are either so expensive or complex. Word And Contrast. multiQA offers an writing a persuasive out-of-the-box method for terminology collaboration. Read More Translate SDLXLIFF Files using translate5. translate5 is a browser-based OpenSource system for editing and analysing translations. In translate5, users can edit, comment, filter, and essay university in german sort translations. The tool supports terminology tagging, relay languages, and reference files, and includes components for workflow, task management, and user administration. translate5 supports SDLXLIFF as import format; SDLXLIFF files can be edited in the browser without license fees.

Read More Opening Trados 2007 TMW Translation Memories in essay, Trados Studio or Other Tools. Sweat Essay. TMW is the format of native translation memories of Trados 2007 and earlier versions. Writing A Persuasive. You may receive TMW translation memories (actually five files: *.iix, *.mdf, *.mtf, *.mwf, and *.tmw for each translation memory) while you need to use Trados Studio or another tool. Essay University In German Language. Actually, you cannot use TMW translation memories directly in SDL Trados Studio or another tool; however, there is a couple of methods that will enable you to make use of your legacy TMs. Read More Document Cleaner: Get Rid of Too Many Tags.

When you open a document in a CAT tool (e.g. memoQ, Trados, Wordfast, etc.), you might notice too many tags in essay, some segments; such files are usually converted from PDF sources. Incorrect formatting causes many problems in translation, especially if translation is done using CAT tools, creating excessive tags, which makes it hard to translate the text. There are a few methods to zora neale hurston sweat essay, safely remove as many of these unnecessary tags as possible while retaining formatting and layout. Read More Unbabel: Human Corrected Machine Translation Service. Unbabel is an online translation service combining a Machine Translation Engine with a Crowd of writing a persuasive on immigration, Human Editors who correct the output of the software to ensure it is management case study correct and fluid. Read More Translation of Visio Files Using SDL Trados Studio. It might happen that your client requires you to translate Visio files, and you wonder which tool you should use.

If you have received a VSD file, ask your client to save it as XML Drawing (*.vdx). Several Translation Environment Tools (TEnTs, a.k.a. CAT tools) support Visio VDX files by writing a persuasive, default, including Kilgray memoQ and Wordfast Pro. Still, you might be required to use SDL Trados Studio and you do not want to purchase a plugin for essay, hundreds of dollars. Let#8217;s see how you can translate Visio VDX files using SDL Trados Studio through creating a simple filter. Read More Skalkaz: Free Dictionary with Pronunciation Chrome Extension.

This Chrome extension helps you to look up an a persuasive unknown English word. Transition Essay. It gives the dictionary definition of the word and its pronunciation out writing a persuasive essay on immigration loud. The app works on PDFs as well. Read More Automatically Save and Recover Files. Sometimes a program closes before you can save changes to a file you are working on. Possible causes include: a power outage, system instability, or program crashing. The AutoSave, AutoRecover, and neale hurston AutoBackup options can help you avoid losing work by automatically saving your data as often as you want. Read More GoldenDict Free Dictionary Lookup Program.

GoldenDict is a feature-rich dictionary lookup program. GoldenDict supports multiple dictionary file formats, namely: Babylon .BGL files, complete with images and resources, StarDict dictionaries, Dictd dictionary files, and ABBYY files. Moreover, it supports looking up and listening to pronunciations from forvo.com. Read More Competition: Congratulations, Ahmed ElMiligy! It gives us a great deal of pleasure to anounce the winner of the writing a persuasive essay on immigration First Prize of localhost/translationblog March#8217;s Competition. Read More Wordbee: Translation Management System. Wordbee is a web-based translation management system, an online collaborative platform for sweat, project management and Computer-Assisted Translation. Writing A Persuasive. Read More AlignAssist: Translation Memories from transition word for compare essay, Old Translations.

You might have old translations that were translated without a CAT tool. Now, as you use translation memories, you need to find some way to writing essay, make use of such translations. There are some tools called Alignment Tools; among them is AlignAssist. Read More SDL Edit is now considered an outdated application; however, some clients still require translating or editing *.itd files. On My University In German. Still, you can use other tools to translate them.

Read More FREE Wordfast Training: Three Coupon Winners. Writing A Persuasive Essay On Immigration. Three of localhost/translationblog followers have won a 10-hour Online Training Course in Wordfast, FREE of college, charge. Congratulations to the Winners! Read More Sometimes, you receive a Passolo file, and you need to convert it to XLIFF, TTX, or TMX for better handling. Read More January 27, 2014. memoQ cloud is a new service offered by Kilgray which works the same way memoQ desktop editions do, offering almost the same features. memoQ cloud offers memoQ translator pro and memoQ project manager licenses. Users can also connect with desktop memoQ clients.

Moreover, memoQ Cloud has the advantage that one does need to download and install the memoQ server software and to rent or purchase physical servers. One more advantage of the writing essay on immigration cloud version over the desktop version is that the latter requires paying a yearly maintenance fee for zora neale hurston sweat, getting updates after the a persuasive first year while the former does not require so as updates are available online. memoQ Cloud offers a one-month trial period. To start using memoQ Cloud, register or sign in to Language Terminal, click the #8220;Profile#8221; tag, and then the memoQ sub-tab. Read More Word Count Using CountFast OR CountOnIt. January 25, 2014. Word-count calculation is one of the initial steps before accepting a translation job. Although the most accurate way would be to use #8220;Analysis#8221; or #8220;Statistics#8221; features offered by TEnTs (a.k.a TM tools), especially the one to be used for the current translation job, sometimes a quick, rough word-count is required.

This article compares two online word-count tools that could be useful, especially for non-Word file formats. Read More January 14, 2014. Acrolinx provides content optimization software; it is based on a linguistic analysis engine helping users create engaging, understandable, and search-ready content. Best For Teachers Day. Acrolinx offers a client-server architecture that analyzes content to give users feedback and metrics on content quality Read More January 10, 2014. Solving the Post Edit Puzzle by writing essay on immigration, Paul Filkin (reposted with permission; original post) It would be very arrogant of me to suggest that I have the solution for measuring the effort that goes into transition word for compare essay post-editing translations, wherever they originated from, but in writing a persuasive on immigration, particular machine translation. So let’s table that right away because there are many ways to measure, and pay for, post-editing work and for compare and contrast essay I’m not going to a persuasive on immigration, suggest a single answer to suit everyone. But I think I can safely say that finding a way to psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, measure, and essay pay for post-editing translations in a consistent way that provided good visibility into how many changes had been made, and allowed you to build a cost model you could be happy with, is something many companies and translators are still investigating. The first problem of course is in german language that when you use Machine Translation you can’t see where the differences are between the . Read More Adobe Captivate: Distorted Parts after Publishing to writing a persuasive essay on immigration, MP4. Some users faced this problem while publishing simulations in essay for teachers day, Adobe Captivate: the writing on immigration preview is displayed perfectly; however, when the video is published to lehman risk case study, MP4, it shows distorted slides or overlapping parts. There are some causes and possible fixes. Read More December 14, 2013.

Compress#8230; Extract#8230; What, why, and how? The very simple answer is: compressing files in the first place is useful for writing a persuasive, reducing the size and/or protecting files from corruption especially while sending via email. Best For Teachers. Compressed files can be in formats such as ZIP or RAR. Extracting a compressed archive means copying the writing essay on immigration inclosed files into brothers management study a regular folder to writing a persuasive essay on immigration, be able to deal with the files safely. Read More November 19, 2013. A bunch of new features and compatibility with Windows 8 and 8.1 Compatibility Full support of Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012. Compatibility of brothers management study, built-in AnyCount Engine with Microsoft Office 2013 Analytics Application-wide support for base volume units, similarly to base currency. New Group by on immigration, option with calculation of subtotals in most tables displayed. Experience Stats for Corporate Experts Automation Projetex Automation Engine: Email reminders for Projects, Clients, Quotes, Client Jobs, Corporate Jobs, Freelance Jobs, Invoices, POs.

Email reminder templates customization. Essay For Teachers Day. Email reminder log. Security Audit logging. Reports can be assigned to different groups. Flexibility Corporate Experts can now be paid both by hours and by words, etc.

Corporate Experts now can have their currencies, price lists, payments, balances, etc. A new #8220;Base Unit#8221; feature with a possibility to set units exchange rates. #8220;Mark as Paid#8221; button for POs. #8220;Create Invoice#8221; button for Edit Client Job window. Folder . Read More

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Immigration persuasive essay

Full text: President Obama#039;s DNC speech. By POLITICO STAFF. 07/27/2016 10:58 PM EDT. Remarks as prepared for delivery. Story Continued Below.

Twelve years ago tonight, I addressed this convention for the very first time. You met my two little girls, Malia and writing a persuasive essay on immigration, Sasha – now two amazing young women who just fill me with pride. You fell for my brilliant wife and hurston essay, partner Michelle, who’s made me a better father and a better man; who’s gone on to inspire our nation as First Lady; and a persuasive on immigration, who somehow hasn’t aged a day. I know the risk case study same can’t be said for me. My girls remind me all the time. Wow, you’ve changed so much, daddy. And it’s true – I was so young that first time in Boston. Maybe a little nervous addressing such a big crowd. But I was filled with faith; faith in America – the generous, bighearted, hopeful country that made my story – indeed, all of our stories – possible.

A lot’s happened over the years. And while this nation has been tested by war and recession and all manner of writing essay on immigration challenge – I stand before you again tonight, after almost two terms as your President, to tell you I am even more optimistic about the future of America. How could I not be – after all we’ve achieved together? After the worst recession in 80 years, we’ve fought our way back. We’ve seen deficits come down, 401(k)s recover, an essay, auto industry set new records, unemployment reach eight-year lows, and our businesses create 15 million new jobs. After a century of trying, we declared that health care in America is not a privilege for writing a persuasive on immigration a few, but a right for everybody. After decades of talk, we finally began to wean ourselves off foreign oil, and doubled our production of clean energy. We brought more of our troops home to their families, and delivered justice to Osama bin Laden. Through diplomacy, we shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program, opened up a new chapter with the people of Cuba, and brought nearly 200 nations together around a climate agreement that could save this planet for our kids. We put policies in place to help students with loans; protect consumers from word for compare and contrast, fraud; and cut veteran homelessness almost in half.

And through countless acts of quiet courage, America learned that love has no limits, and marriage equality is writing essay on immigration, now a reality across the land. By so many measures, our country is stronger and more prosperous than it was when we started. And through every victory and every setback, I’ve insisted that change is on my university language, never easy, and never quick; that we wouldn’t meet all of a persuasive our challenges in one term, or one presidency, or even in one lifetime. So tonight, I’m here to tell you that yes, we still have more work to do. On My In German! More work to do for every American still in need of a persuasive essay on immigration a good job or a raise, paid leave or a decent retirement; for every child who needs a sturdier ladder out of poverty or a world-class education; for everyone who hasn’t yet felt the progress of these past seven and a half years. We need to keep making our streets safer and our criminal justice system fairer; our homeland more secure, and our world more peaceful and sustainable for the next generation. We’re not done perfecting our union, or living up to our founding creed – that all of essay on my us are created equal and free in the eyes of God. That work involves a big choice this November. Fair to say, this is not your typical election.

It’s not just a choice between parties or policies; the usual debates between left and right. This is a persuasive on immigration, a more fundamental choice – about psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, who we are as a people, and whether we stay true to this great American experiment in self-government. Look, we Democrats have always had plenty of differences with the Republican Party, and there’s nothing wrong with that; it’s precisely this contest of writing a persuasive essay ideas that pushes our country forward. But what we heard in essay Cleveland last week wasn’t particularly Republican – and it sure wasn’t conservative. What we heard was a deeply pessimistic vision of a country where we turn against each other, and turn away from the rest of the world. On Immigration! There were no serious solutions to pressing problems – just the fanning of resentment, and of houston essay, blame, and a persuasive on immigration, anger, and hate. And that is word for compare and contrast, not the America I know. The America I know is a persuasive on immigration, full of courage, and optimism, and ingenuity. The America I know is essay day, decent and generous.

Sure, we have real anxieties – about paying the a persuasive essay on immigration bills, protecting our kids, caring for a sick parent. University College Application Essay! We get frustrated with political gridlock, worry about racial divisions; are shocked and saddened by the madness of Orlando or Nice. Writing Essay On Immigration! There are pockets of America that never recovered from factory closures; men who took pride in hard work and providing for essay university their families who now feel forgotten; parents who wonder whether their kids will have the same opportunities we had. All that is real. We’re challenged to do better; to be better. But as I’ve traveled this country, through all fifty states; as I’ve rejoiced with you and mourned with you, what I’ve also seen, more than anything, is essay, what is right with America. I see people working hard and starting businesses; people teaching kids and serving our country. I see engineers inventing stuff, and university in german language, doctors coming up with new cures. I see a younger generation full of writing a persuasive essay energy and new ideas, not constrained by what is, ready to seize what ought to be. Most of all, I see Americans of every party, every background, every faith who believe that we are stronger together – black, white, Latino, Asian, Native American; young and old; gay, straight, men, women, folks with disabilities, all pledging allegiance, under the hurston same proud flag, to this big, bold country that we love.

That’s the America I know. A Persuasive Essay! And there is only one candidate in this race who believes in that future, and has devoted her life to it; a mother and grandmother who’d do anything to help our children thrive; a leader with real plans to break down barriers, blast through glass ceilings, and widen the circle of opportunity to every single American – the next President of the United States, Hillary Clinton. Now, eight years ago, Hillary and I were rivals for the Democratic nomination. We battled for a year and a half. Let me tell you, it was tough, because Hillary’s tough. Every time I thought I might have that race won, Hillary just came back stronger. But after it was all over, I asked Hillary to join my team. She was a little surprised, but ultimately said yes – because she knew that what was at stake was bigger than either of transition and contrast essay us.

And for four years, I had a front-row seat to a persuasive on immigration, her intelligence, her judgment, and best essay day, her discipline. I came to realize that her unbelievable work ethic wasn’t for praise or attention – that she was in this for everyone who needs a champion. I understood that after all these years, she has never forgotten just who she’s fighting for. Hillary’s still got the tenacity she had as a young woman working at the Children’s Defense Fund, going door to door to ultimately make sure kids with disabilities could get a quality education. She’s still got the a persuasive essay on immigration heart she showed as our First Lady, working with Congress to help push through a Children’s Health Insurance Program that to this day protects millions of kids. She’s still seared with the neale hurston sweat essay memory of essay on immigration every American she met who lost loved ones on 9/11, which is why, as a Senator from psychology, New York, she fought so hard for funding to help first responders; why, as Secretary of State, she sat with me in the Situation Room and a persuasive essay, forcefully argued in favor of the mission that took out bin Laden. You know, nothing truly prepares you for the demands of the Oval Office. Until you’ve sat at that desk, you don’t know what it’s like to essay, manage a global crisis, or send young people to essay, war. But Hillary’s been in the room; she’s been part of those decisions.

She knows what’s at stake in lehman brothers case study the decisions our government makes for a persuasive on immigration the working family, the senior citizen, the small business owner, the university in german soldier, and the veteran. Even in the middle of crisis, she listens to people, and keeps her cool, and writing a persuasive on immigration, treats everybody with respect. Best Essay For Teachers! And no matter how daunting the odds; no matter how much people try to knock her down, she never, ever quits. That’s the Hillary I know. That’s the Hillary I’ve come to admire. And that’s why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman more qualified than Hillary Clinton to writing a persuasive, serve as President of the United States of America. And, by the way, in center psychology case you were wondering about her judgment, look at her choice of a persuasive essay on immigration running mate. Management Study! Tim Kaine is as good a man, as humble and committed a public servant, as anyone I know. He will be a great Vice President, and he’ll make Hillary a better President.

Just like my dear friend and brother Joe Biden has made me a better President. Now, Hillary has real plans to address the concerns she’s heard from a persuasive, you on the campaign trail. She’s got specific ideas to invest in zora essay new jobs, to help workers share in a persuasive essay their company’s profits, to help put kids in lehman brothers study preschool, and put students through college without taking on a ton of debt. That’s what leaders do. And then there’s Donald Trump. He’s not really a plans guy. Writing A Persuasive Essay On Immigration! Not really a facts guy, either. Risk Study! He calls himself a business guy, which is a persuasive essay, true, but I have to say, I know plenty of businessmen and women who’ve achieved success without leaving a trail of lawsuits, and unpaid workers, and essay on my university in german language, people feeling like they got cheated.

Does anyone really believe that a guy who’s spent his 70 years on this Earth showing no regard for essay working people is suddenly going to university in german, be your champion? Your voice? If so, you should vote for writing a persuasive essay on immigration him. Zora Sweat Essay! But if you’re someone who’s truly concerned about paying your bills, and seeing the writing a persuasive essay economy grow, and creating more opportunity for everybody, then the choice isn’t even close. If you want someone with a lifelong track record of fighting for college higher wages, better benefits, a fairer tax code, a bigger voice for workers, and stronger regulations on Wall Street, then you should vote for Hillary Clinton. And if you’re concerned about who’s going to keep you and your family safe in a persuasive a dangerous world – well, the word for compare choice is even clearer. Hillary Clinton is a persuasive, respected around the world not just by center for spiritual psychology, leaders, but by the people they serve. She’s worked closely with our intelligence teams, our diplomats, our military. And she has the judgment, the experience, and the temperament to meet the threat from terrorism. It’s not new to her.

Our troops have pounded ISIL without mercy, taking out leaders, taking back territory. Writing A Persuasive On Immigration! I know Hillary won’t relent until ISIL is destroyed. She’ll finish the job – and she’ll do it without resorting to torture, or banning entire religions from entering our country. She is in german language, fit to be the next Commander-in-Chief. Meanwhile, Donald Trump calls our military a disaster.

Apparently, he doesn’t know the men and women who make up the strongest fighting force the world has ever known. He suggests America is weak. He must not hear the a persuasive on immigration billions of men, women, and lehman brothers management, children, from the on immigration Baltics to Burma, who still look to lehman management study, America to be the light of freedom, dignity, and human rights. He cozies up to Putin, praises Saddam Hussein, and tells the NATO allies that stood by our side after 9/11 that they have to writing, pay up if they want our protection. Word Essay! Well, America’s promises do not come with a price tag.

We meet our commitments. And that’s one reason why almost every country on Earth sees America as stronger and more respected today than they did eight years ago. America is a persuasive, already great. America is word and contrast essay, already strong. On Immigration! And I promise you, our strength, our greatness, does not depend on Donald Trump. In fact, it doesn’t depend on any one person. And that, in for compare and contrast the end, may be the biggest difference in this election – the writing a persuasive essay meaning of our democracy.

Ronald Reagan called America “a shining city on a hill.” Donald Trump calls it “a divided crime scene” that only center for spiritual, he can fix. It doesn’t matter to writing a persuasive essay on immigration, him that illegal immigration and the crime rate are as low as they’ve been in decades, because he’s not offering any real solutions to transition, those issues. He’s just offering slogans, and he’s offering fear. He’s betting that if he scares enough people, he might score just enough votes to win this election. That is another bet that Donald Trump will lose. Because he’s selling the American people short. A Persuasive! We are not a fragile or frightful people. Our power doesn’t come from some self-declared savior promising that he alone can restore order. We don’t look to be ruled.

Our power comes from those immortal declarations first put to paper right here in Philadelphia all those years ago; We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that together, We, the People, can form a more perfect union. That’s who we are. That’s our birthright – the capacity to shape our own destiny. That’s what drove patriots to choose revolution over tyranny and our GIs to liberate a continent. It’s what gave women the courage to reach for the ballot, and marchers to cross a bridge in Selma, and workers to organize and fight for better wages. America has never been about what one person says he’ll do for us. It’s always been about center, what can be achieved by writing a persuasive on immigration, us, together, through the hard, slow, sometimes frustrating, but ultimately enduring work of self-government. And that’s what Hillary Clinton understands. She knows that this is a big, diverse country, and that most issues are rarely black and word essay, white. That even when you’re 100 percent right, getting things done requires compromise. That democracy doesn’t work if we constantly demonize each other.

She knows that for progress to writing, happen, we have to listen to each other, see ourselves in transition word for compare essay each other, fight for our principles but also fight to find common ground, no matter how elusive that may seem. Hillary knows we can work through racial divides in writing a persuasive essay this country when we realize the brothers risk case study worry black parents feel when their son leaves the house isn’t so different than what a brave cop’s family feels when he puts on the blue and goes to work; that we can honor police and treat every community fairly. She knows that acknowledging problems that have festered for decades isn’t making race relations worse – it’s creating the possibility for people of on immigration good will to join and make things better. Hillary knows we can insist on a lawful and orderly immigration system while still seeing striving students and psychology, their toiling parents as loving families, not criminals or rapists; families that came here for the same reasons our forebears came – to work, and writing essay on immigration, study, and make a better life, in a place where we can talk and lehman brothers risk management case study, worship and love as we please. She knows their dream is quintessentially American, and the American Dream is writing a persuasive essay on immigration, something no wall will ever contain. It can be frustrating, this business of democracy. Trust me, I know. Hillary knows, too. When the other side refuses to university of houston, compromise, progress can stall. Supporters can grow impatient, and worry that you’re not trying hard enough; that you’ve maybe sold out. But I promise you, when we keep at it; when we change enough minds; when we deliver enough votes, then progress does happen.

Just ask the twenty million more people who have health care today. Just ask the Marine who proudly serves his country without hiding the husband he loves. Democracy works, but we gotta want it – not just during an election year, but all the writing essay on immigration days in between. So if you agree that there’s too much inequality in our economy, and too much money in our politics, we all need to be as vocal and as organized and as persistent as Bernie Sanders’ supporters have been. We all need to get out and best essay, vote for Democrats up and down the writing a persuasive essay on immigration ticket, and best essay for teachers, then hold them accountable until they get the job done. If you want more justice in the justice system, then we’ve all got to vote – not just for a President, but for mayors, and sheriffs, and writing essay on immigration, state’s attorneys, and state legislators. Transition Word For Compare Essay! And we’ve got to work with police and writing a persuasive essay, protesters until laws and practices are changed. If you want to fight climate change, we’ve got to transition word for compare and contrast, engage not only young people on college campuses, but reach out to the coal miner who’s worried about writing essay, taking care of application essay his family, the single mom worried about a persuasive essay, gas prices. If you want to protect our kids and our cops from best essay for teachers, gun violence, we’ve got to writing, get the vast majority of Americans, including gun owners, who agree on background checks to be just as vocal and determined as the gun lobby that blocks change through every funeral we hold. That’s how change will happen. Look, Hillary’s got her share of critics.

She’s been caricatured by the right and by some folks on the left; accused of everything you can imagine – and some things you can’t. Sweat Essay! But she knows that’s what happens when you’re under a microscope for writing essay on immigration 40 years. On My Language! She knows she’s made mistakes, just like I have; just like we all do. That’s what happens when we try. That’s what happens when you’re the kind of citizen Teddy Roosevelt once described – not the timid souls who criticize from the sidelines, but someone “who is actually in the arena…who strives valiantly; who errs…[but] who at writing a persuasive the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement.” Hillary Clinton is for spiritual psychology, that woman in the arena. She’s been there for us – even if we haven’t always noticed. And if you’re serious about a persuasive on immigration, our democracy, you can’t afford to stay home just because she might not align with you on every issue. You’ve got to sweat, get in a persuasive essay the arena with her, because democracy isn’t a spectator sport. America isn’t about “yes he will.” It’s about “yes we can.” And we’re going to for compare and contrast, carry Hillary to on immigration, victory this fall, because that’s what the moment demands. You know, there’s been a lot of talk in this campaign about what America’s lost – people who tell us that our way of life is being undermined by pernicious changes and dark forces beyond our control.

They tell voters there’s a “real America” out there that must be restored. This isn’t an transition essay, idea that started with Donald Trump. It’s been peddled by politicians for a long time – probably from the start of writing a persuasive essay on immigration our Republic. And it’s got me thinking about the story I told you twelve years ago tonight, about university of houston essay, my Kansas grandparents and the things they taught me when I was growing up. Writing! They came from the heartland; their ancestors began settling there about 200 years ago. They were Scotch-Irish mostly, farmers, teachers, ranch hands, pharmacists, oil rig workers. Hardy, small town folks.

Some were Democrats, but a lot of them were Republicans. My grandparents explained that they didn’t like show-offs. They didn’t admire braggarts or bullies. They didn’t respect mean-spiritedness, or folks who were always looking for shortcuts in life. Instead, they valued traits like honesty and hard work. Kindness and on my language, courtesy. Humility; responsibility; helping each other out. That’s what they believed in. True things. Things that last. The things we try to teach our kids.

And what my grandparents understood was that these values weren’t limited to Kansas. They weren’t limited to small towns. These values could travel to Hawaii; even the other side of the a persuasive essay on immigration world, where my mother would end up working to help poor women get a better life. They knew these values weren’t reserved for one race; they could be passed down to lehman risk study, a half-Kenyan grandson, or a half-Asian granddaughter; in writing essay on immigration fact, they were the same values Michelle’s parents, the descendants of for teachers day slaves, taught their own kids living in writing a persuasive essay a bungalow on the South Side of Chicago. They knew these values were exactly what drew immigrants here, and they believed that the children of those immigrants were just as American as their own, whether they wore a cowboy hat or a yarmulke; a baseball cap or a hijab. America has changed over the years.

But these values my grandparents taught me – they haven’t gone anywhere. They’re as strong as ever; still cherished by essay university in german, people of every party, every race, and writing essay on immigration, every faith. They live on in each of essay for teachers us. What makes us American, what makes us patriots, is what’s in here. On Immigration! That’s what matters. That’s why we can take the food and music and holidays and styles of other countries, and blend it into something uniquely our own.

That’s why we can attract strivers and entrepreneurs from psychosynthesis for spiritual, around the globe to build new factories and create new industries here. That’s why our military can look the a persuasive essay on immigration way it does, every shade of humanity, forged into common service. That’s why anyone who threatens our values, whether fascists or communists or jihadists or homegrown demagogues, will always fail in the end. That’s America. Those bonds of affection; that common creed. We don’t fear the future; we shape it, embrace it, as one people, stronger together than we are on our own. That’s what Hillary Clinton understands – this fighter, this stateswoman, this mother and grandmother, this public servant, this patriot – that’s the America she’s fighting for.

And that’s why I have confidence, as I leave this stage tonight, that the Democratic Party is in good hands. My time in this office hasn’t fixed everything; as much as we’ve done, there’s still so much I want to of houston application essay, do. But for all the writing on immigration tough lessons I’ve had to learn; for lehman risk management study all the places I’ve fallen short; I’ve told Hillary, and I’ll tell you what’s picked me back up, every single time. It’s been you. The American people. It’s the letter I keep on writing a persuasive my wall from a survivor in Ohio who twice almost lost everything to cancer, but urged me to keep fighting for health care reform, even when the battle seemed lost. Do not quit. It’s the painting I keep in my private office, a big-eyed, green owl, made by a seven year-old girl who was taken from us in Newtown, given to me by her parents so I wouldn’t forget – a reminder of all the parents who have turned their grief into action.

It’s the small business owner in Colorado who cut most of his own salary so he wouldn’t have to lay off any of of houston college application his workers in the recession – because, he said, “that wouldn’t have been in the spirit of America.” It’s the conservative in essay Texas who said he disagreed with me on everything, but appreciated that, like him, I try to be a good dad. It’s the essay on my courage of the young soldier from Arizona who nearly died on the battlefield in Afghanistan, but who’s learned to speak and writing a persuasive on immigration, walk again – and earlier this year, stepped through the hurston door of the Oval Office on his own power, to salute and shake my hand. It’s every American who believed we could change this country for the better, so many of you who’d never been involved in politics, who picked up phones, and hit the streets, and used the internet in amazing new ways to make change happen. You are the best organizers on writing a persuasive on immigration the planet, and I’m so proud of all the change you’ve made possible.

Time and again, you’ve picked me up. I hope, sometimes, I picked you up, too. Tonight, I ask you to do for Hillary Clinton what you did for me. I ask you to carry her the same way you carried me. Essay For Teachers! Because you’re who I was talking about writing on immigration, twelve years ago, when I talked about university application essay, hope – it’s been you who’ve fueled my dogged faith in our future, even when the odds are great; even when the essay road is long. Hope in the face of essay in german difficulty; hope in the face of uncertainty; the audacity of hope! America, you have vindicated that hope these past eight years. And now I’m ready to writing a persuasive on immigration, pass the baton and word for compare and contrast, do my part as a private citizen. This year, in this election, I’m asking you to join me – to reject cynicism, reject fear, to summon what’s best in us; to elect Hillary Clinton as the next President of the United States, and show the a persuasive essay world we still believe in the promise of in german language this great nation. Thank you for this incredible journey.

Let’s keep it going. God bless the writing a persuasive on immigration United States of America. Missing out on the latest scoops? Sign up for POLITICO Playbook and get the latest news, every morning — in your inbox.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Essay. Causal analysis essays answer the on my in german language, question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. Writing On Immigration. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the for compare and contrast essay, cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?

Why do some people become addicted to writing gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to university of houston application essay rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of essay romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older?

Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?

Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush?

Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against college application essay their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks?

Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti?

Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people?

Why are young people better at writing a persuasive essay on immigration learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of of houston essay Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids?

Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by a persuasive on immigration purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in lehman study, boxes and writing essay, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances?

Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates?

Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in of houston essay, such economic turmoil?

Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in a persuasive on immigration, Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in lehman study, the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the on immigration, Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to essay the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and a persuasive on immigration, more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?

Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by best essay for teachers day gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to writing a persuasive use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of center for spiritual psychology choice for Donald Trump?

What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the a persuasive essay, main language used around the psychosynthesis center psychology, world in business and writing essay on immigration, science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to of houston college application essay stop? What caused Great Britain to essay on immigration adopt the parliamentary system?

Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the zora neale hurston, rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at essay on immigration 10%, and zora neale hurston essay, African American was third at writing essay on immigration 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to university of houston college application end the war? Why is a persuasive on immigration it important to psychosynthesis for spiritual study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. Writing Essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title.

Your answer to the question will be the thesis of transition your paper. A Persuasive Essay. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the best essay for teachers day, situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by writing a persuasive on immigration asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in word for compare and contrast essay, your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in writing a persuasive on immigration, the body of your essay. Brothers Risk Management Case. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie?

Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in a persuasive, watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in essay university in german, seeing the forbidden on writing a persuasive essay the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on university of houston college essay one reason if you have several parts of that reason to writing a persuasive essay discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into best essay for teachers full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and writing essay on immigration, from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for lehman risk management case study College Students. by a persuasive essay Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by lehman risk case Virginia Kearney 37. A Persuasive Essay. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by of houston college application Virginia Kearney 108. Writing On Immigration. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by psychosynthesis center Laura Writes 40. this really helped!

Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for a persuasive essay introduction and zora neale sweat, conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for writing on immigration Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Center. Thanks a lot for a persuasive essay on immigration posting such a wonderful and lehman management case study, helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas!

These questions always come to on immigration our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on on my in german the technology niche. 2. Writing A Persuasive Essay On Immigration. A few exciting ideas about the body like the best essay day, introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of a persuasive others. Hoping to sweat essay have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. On Immigration. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on lehman brothers risk which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island.

Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from on immigration, your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the psychology, people who teach the essay on immigration, beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to essay on my in german post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for writing essay over 20 years.

Hezekiah 3 years ago from transition for compare and contrast essay, Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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code chivalry essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in essay poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is on my, a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of on immigration, poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by university of houston college application essay inserting a slash (/) in essay the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in for teachers the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is writing a persuasive essay, a calque for neale hurston, the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at writing a persuasive essay on immigration, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in essay combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is writing a persuasive essay, substituted for of houston college application essay, one removed by the printers because of an a persuasive, error.

For instance, the first quarto of university application essay, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and writing a persuasive essay, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. On My University In German Language? (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in on immigration anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in for teachers the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of writing a persuasive on immigration, literature traditionally thought to day be suitable for admiration and study. A Persuasive Essay On Immigration? (3) In addition, the word canon refers to university of houston the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Writing A Persuasive On Immigration? Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for word for compare, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Writing? NB : Do not confuse the transition, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of a persuasive, literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and university in german language, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out writing a persuasive essay on immigration of the literary canon unfairly.

Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the psychology, existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the writing a persuasive on immigration, Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an transition, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to on immigration the words of a Provençal or Italian song. College Application Essay? (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of writing a persuasive essay, beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and psychosynthesis for spiritual, live among them for writing a persuasive on immigration, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and risk management case study, Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the writing a persuasive, Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to in german love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by essay Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the zora hurston, two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by a persuasive the Emperor in neale hurston essay the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the a persuasive on immigration, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the day, most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of a persuasive essay, Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the lehman brothers risk, ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms.

Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by writing a persuasive essay on immigration specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the lehman brothers, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and on immigration, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. For Teachers? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of writing, that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of brothers, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. A Persuasive On Immigration? The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sweat essay, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. A Persuasive Essay? One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the university essay, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point.

This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of writing a persuasive, good catachresis. Other examples, in for compare The Lord of the a persuasive, Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at lehman risk management study, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into writing a persuasive essay on immigration his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is center for spiritual, all about writing essay on immigration blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is lehman management, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to writing a persuasive essay on immigration have exclaimed, Now that is of houston college, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the a persuasive essay, result of two metaphors. Management? The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Writing On Immigration? However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of for compare and contrast essay, a horse of essay on immigration, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the brothers, resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an a persuasive essay, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at university of houston essay, abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of a persuasive on immigration, sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and psychosynthesis center, glares at its enemies. On Immigration? We should leave out the transition, mixed imagery of a persuasive essay, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and on my university language, inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the essay on immigration, other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of psychosynthesis, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to a persuasive on immigration be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of best for teachers day, y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Writing Essay? An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft,

The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the of houston, big wheel, The farmer stops by writing the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and best for teachers day, looks at the oats and writing, rye,

The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of best for teachers, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the writing essay on immigration, words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the university, word dress appears in essay the second line, and psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology, the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. A Persuasive On Immigration? Robert Herrick's To the risk case study, Virgins, to Make Much of writing essay on immigration, Time is an on my in german, example of writing, a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in university college application their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of writing on immigration, a page. This word would match the first word on the next page.

A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and zora neale hurston essay, making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about writing essay on immigration a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. For Spiritual? According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in a persuasive essay on immigration his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an center for spiritual psychology, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . A Persuasive? . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the application, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and writing essay, courtiers. Center? They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and essay on immigration, cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in lehman case study English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in essay on immigration comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and university college essay, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A Persuasive Essay? A. University In German Language? Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to writing a persuasive be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is best essay for teachers, a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the writing a persuasive essay on immigration, Inklings formed. Zora Hurston Sweat Essay? As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the writing on immigration, members of the best for teachers, Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of a persuasive essay on immigration, various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Essay? Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and a persuasive on immigration, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and lehman management case, several of essay, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in lehman risk study this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of a persuasive essay, education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of university application essay, ignorance, chained in writing essay on immigration place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of transition for compare and contrast, education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to a persuasive essay leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and on immigration, eternal beyond the physical world.

C. University Of Houston? S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and a persuasive, the further they travel in the onion ring, the sweat, larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from a persuasive essay on immigration this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in for spiritual psychology two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Writing A Persuasive On Immigration? Matthew Arnold's lectures on center for spiritual Celtic literature at writing essay on immigration, Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at best essay, that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to a persuasive the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the lehman brothers risk case study, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of essay, extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of essay on my university in german, a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and on immigration, date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in sweat essay great detail. A Persuasive On Immigration? The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at lehman brothers case study, first were limited to a persuasive conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the on my in german language, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. A Persuasive Essay On Immigration? The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Of Houston College Application Essay? We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of writing on immigration, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Best? This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Writing? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Best Day? Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and writing a persuasive essay on immigration, Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and college, deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in writing essay on immigration turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the best essay day, first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the essay, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the on my, lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and writing a persuasive on immigration, lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the psychosynthesis center psychology, centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the writing a persuasive essay on immigration, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and for spiritual, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in on immigration particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Transition Word For Compare? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the writing, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to essay university language be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the essay on immigration, universe common in management study the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of writing essay, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and on my in german language, objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of a persuasive essay on immigration, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes.

The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on neale particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to a persuasive on immigration correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Word And Contrast? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at writing a persuasive on immigration, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the center for spiritual, eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Writing? They focus on religious aspects of transition and contrast essay, chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in on immigration acts of university college, betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length.

The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in essay on immigration a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and brothers risk study, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). A Persuasive Essay? The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the word for compare and contrast, protagonist ; the writing a persuasive essay on immigration, character against whom the university college essay, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of writing a persuasive on immigration, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the zora neale hurston essay, tritagonist. Writing A Persuasive? Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the day, character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and on immigration, a moody young man named Mercutio . For Teachers Day? Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Writing Essay On Immigration? Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the psychosynthesis center for spiritual, Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an writing a persuasive essay, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in brothers management case Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and essay on immigration, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and university of houston essay, the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in on immigration which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is zora neale sweat, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Writing Essay On Immigration? I lead the life I love ; I love the for spiritual psychology, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to writing on immigration the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Sweat? Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to on immigration female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for center for spiritual, the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and writing on immigration, warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in best the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to writing essay civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Center Psychology? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the on immigration, church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of lehman brothers management case, historical novels, poems, and a persuasive essay, paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of essay, knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and essay, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and essay for teachers day, uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in writing on immigration purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,

And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of neale, a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of writing, narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by transition word for compare and contrast essay remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the writing a persuasive on immigration, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by essay on my language singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the on immigration, significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by best essay for teachers day replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to writing a persuasive essay explain the word for compare essay, passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of essay, lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the transition for compare, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and writing a persuasive essay, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of for teachers, spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to a persuasive essay refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in lehman brothers risk management study a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in a persuasive C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to lehman risk management be slain in a persuasive order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in brothers management study medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the on immigration, rocks of Calvary many, many times . For Teachers Day? . . and writing a persuasive, so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to hurston sweat any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to writing essay interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. Best Essay? In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Writing Essay? Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and university language, Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for on immigration, much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about university English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for writing a persuasive on immigration, what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Transition For Compare And Contrast? In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in writing essay on immigration Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the brothers risk management case study, grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead.

This is writing a persuasive on immigration, why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Psychosynthesis For Spiritual Psychology? See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and writing, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Psychosynthesis? Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and writing a persuasive essay on immigration, receive sentence. Essay For Teachers? By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. A Persuasive Essay? Chaucer satirized a summoner in transition and contrast The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by a persuasive Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Essay? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and writing essay, two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of lehman brothers study, 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the writing on immigration, dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in psychosynthesis for spiritual which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of writing on immigration, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the neale essay, writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of writing essay on immigration, one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to for compare children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in on immigration yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in writing essay that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of essay, death. In many ways, the essay, smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in college application oposition to writing on immigration the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in university language Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to on immigration completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in of houston college Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and writing a persuasive essay on immigration, history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Lehman Brothers? To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for a persuasive essay, the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and word for compare and contrast, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is on immigration, any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an lehman brothers risk management case, independent clause . On Immigration? If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Essay Day? For expanded discussion and writing, examples, click here.

For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class:

Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Psychosynthesis Center Psychology? Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to a persuasive on immigration download a PDF handout for transition word for compare, more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and writing a persuasive, June , trees and and contrast essay, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in essay on immigration transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in university college application essay which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of on immigration, a cliff until the story resumes. Neale? The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and writing, is thereafter resolved. Best Essay For Teachers Day? It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and a persuasive on immigration, usually the transition for compare, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the writing a persuasive, crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Psychosynthesis Center For Spiritual Psychology? (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance.

See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in writing a persuasive on immigration auto shop) is case study, a clipped form of a persuasive on immigration, automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to in german analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for writing a persuasive, more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to psychosynthesis center psychology reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for a persuasive on immigration, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in writing essay on immigration later years to lehman brothers risk each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. Writing On Immigration? For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and risk study, wizards, who sail across the writing, sea, leaving the world of transition for compare, human men and women forever, an a persuasive essay on immigration, act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by management study coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to on immigration what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by university college application existential philosophy, on a persuasive essay on immigration the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in brothers comparison with the complexities of human living.

Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to essay on immigration imply the reduction of a work's meanings to university of houston essay a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of writing a persuasive on immigration, other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of best essay for teachers day, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the essay, criticism was veiled in for compare essay riddles and on immigration, wordplay.

Examples of this type in of houston college application essay Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an writing essay on immigration, egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Psychosynthesis For Spiritual? Today, the a persuasive essay, term implies most strongly the lehman brothers risk management, spoken dialect of that area. Writing Essay? Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization.

It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and in german, thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and essay, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the essay day, island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Writing A Persuasive? The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the day, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. On Immigration? An example sentence to university of houston application illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and writing, French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of risk case study, Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in writing a persuasive essay code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of transition for compare and contrast, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in writing a persuasive essay sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in essay on my language an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for essay on immigration, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for essay in german language, a number of writing on immigration, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Best Day? Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. Writing? The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and day, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to writing essay have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. University Of Houston? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the a persuasive, originator of the error hears or reads an university of houston college essay, unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to essay on immigration a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the zora sweat essay, words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Essay? What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to for spiritual those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and a persuasive essay on immigration, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Lehman Brothers Management? See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the a persuasive essay on immigration, phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to brothers risk case study a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and writing a persuasive essay, relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and neale hurston sweat essay, British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to a persuasive on immigration the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from on my in german language 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in writing historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the zora neale, term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of a persuasive, native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the best day, concerns of writing a persuasive on immigration, colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in university of houston application Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to writing a persuasive essay on immigration a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of university of houston college application essay, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and writing a persuasive essay on immigration, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the best day, word comedy came to essay mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the application, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for writing essay, Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of lehman management case study, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. A Persuasive Essay On Immigration? The majority of the cast consists of essay university, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for a persuasive essay, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the sweat, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the a persuasive, priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by on my language shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). Essay? In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the brothers risk management case study, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of writing essay, cruelty on lehman brothers management case the jailer's part).

(2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on writing a persuasive as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of university of houston application essay, innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and writing a persuasive essay, an animal substituted in university in german language his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by writing essay on immigration a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and on my, he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Writing On Immigration? Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of psychosynthesis center psychology, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is a persuasive, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. Psychosynthesis For Spiritual Psychology? It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in writing essay on immigration which new or original music is composed specially for best day, the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and writing, simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in essay the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in writing essay ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to of houston application the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the a persuasive essay on immigration, center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of risk case study, '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. A Persuasive Essay? In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . In German Language? Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in writing essay which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to of houston application modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is writing, a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in hurston sweat contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Essay On Immigration? Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to essay on my in german language recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a persuasive essay on immigration a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the best essay for teachers day, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a persuasive essay, a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Essay On My University In German? For instance, the sandwich gained its name from a persuasive essay its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. For Compare And Contrast? The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of writing a persuasive essay on immigration, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on.

COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the for spiritual, visitation of a god like Lug to a persuasive essay on immigration a woman who then becomes pregnant after the day, divine visitation. The birth-tale in writing a persuasive general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of college, Irish literature include the birth of writing a persuasive essay on immigration, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of on my university, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and writing essay, closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to essay describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in a persuasive essay on immigration which the lehman risk case, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the writing a persuasive essay, chimera has the transition word for compare and contrast essay, body of essay on immigration, a lion, tale of day, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the a persuasive essay on immigration, centaur has a horse's body and essay in german, human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and essay on immigration, a man's body; and word and contrast, the harpy has an writing essay on immigration, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the university language, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and a persuasive essay, the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in college essay favor after the writing, Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in university college translation; the encounter of a persuasive on immigration, fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on zora neale hurston essay his father's and mother's coats of a persuasive essay on immigration, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . For Teachers? In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and writing essay, a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to psychosynthesis center for spiritual have been set by a persuasive on immigration multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by a persuasive setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to of houston application essay describe the writing a persuasive essay, creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to for spiritual creating new words this way. Writing A Persuasive Essay? Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and essay for teachers, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Essay On Immigration? A man accused of university of houston college application, a crime would publicly swear to writing on immigration his innocence. Zora Neale Sweat Essay? The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at writing, least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Day? If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the a persuasive on immigration, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to lehman management case study the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for on immigration, instance. A conceit is of houston college application essay, usually classified as a subtype of writing, metaphor . Of Houston Essay? Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to writing a persuasive century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology value the generality of writing a persuasive on immigration, abstract thought. Best Essay? In the early 1800s, the writing, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and on my language, Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry.

T. S. Eliot added to a persuasive on immigration this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of word, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in a persuasive some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on case study the page, on a persuasive on immigration glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and transition for compare essay, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is writing, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. On My University In German? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of essay, a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and lehman brothers risk management, so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and a persuasive on immigration, so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the center, most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by writing a persuasive conflicts between the zora neale hurston sweat essay, protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to a persuasive essay on immigration stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and on my, barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for a persuasive essay, Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of best essay, conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to writing a persuasive essay destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him.

The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the neale hurston, Shih Ching , ( The Book of writing a persuasive essay on immigration, Odes ), the Record of of houston college application, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in a persuasive essay an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to zora neale essay sing in English and cantar in essay on immigration Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the brothers risk management case study, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Writing A Persuasive? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence.

Rebellion , for psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology, many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a persuasive essay, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the psychology, words house and writing essay, home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to essay for teachers day others, but I might call none of writing essay on immigration, these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in in german which the writing on immigration, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the neale essay, vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of a persuasive on immigration, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on center psychology Thursdays? I be working every afternoon.

Users of standard edited English typically frown on a persuasive essay on immigration this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology, a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and writing a persuasive, literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of university of houston, her plays, her philosophical treatises, and writing a persuasive essay, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an psychosynthesis center for spiritual psychology, individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in a persuasive Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of university application, Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of on immigration, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into brothers management case study another--during fast or informal speech. On Immigration? Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for neale hurston sweat essay, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of essay, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and neale, the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and essay on immigration, different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the center for spiritual psychology, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in writing medieval romances. For Spiritual? It is a persuasive essay on immigration, a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the lehman brothers management case, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. On Immigration? The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of university college application essay, Being. Writing A Persuasive? The idea was that different links on the Chain of management case study, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by essay on immigration God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the essay on my, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of a persuasive essay on immigration, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Psychosynthesis Center For Spiritual? This symbolic link was a correspondence. Writing A Persuasive Essay? However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. For Spiritual Psychology? Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in essay on immigration the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Brothers Management Study? For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to on immigration break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on of houston the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for a persuasive essay on immigration, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for essay, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the on immigration, most important collections of word for compare essay, Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for essay, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of lehman management case study, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of writing on immigration, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of psychosynthesis psychology, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a persuasive essay, a piece of writing by and contrast counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and writing on immigration, other writers helped popularize the form in essay English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. A Persuasive On Immigration? It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is management, called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to writing essay court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at best, jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of a persuasive essay, Good Women as a penance for lehman risk management case, his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over a persuasive essay on immigration the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Brothers? Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by writing a persuasive on immigration C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and transition for compare and contrast, worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the writing essay on immigration, woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the best for teachers day, passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by writing a persuasive essay selfish carnal desires or political concerns of best for teachers, arranged marriages. In spite of essay, this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to best essay for teachers day their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of essay, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the best for teachers day, dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Writing Essay On Immigration? Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the university college, idea of writing essay, love from afar and unrequited love, and hurston, make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the writing a persuasive, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in transition essay a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. A Persuasive On Immigration? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is for teachers, usually numbered as motif no.

1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an essay on immigration, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of zora neale sweat essay, African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the writing essay on immigration, native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the university college essay, validity of an essay on immigration, argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the psychology, known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the writing a persuasive essay, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an word for compare and contrast, illustrative notation from A. Essay On Immigration? V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the psychosynthesis center psychology, Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the essay on immigration, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the center for spiritual, B and writing essay, R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and on my university, so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the writing a persuasive essay on immigration, editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. For Spiritual? The most widespread version Poe had published by writing on immigration Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in essay for teachers Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by writing a persuasive essay Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. University? The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Writing? Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Psychosynthesis Center? This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to essay a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. On My? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the essay on immigration, page might consist of transition word and contrast essay, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. Writing Essay On Immigration? The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the on my, editor has chosen for essay on immigration, his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in university of houston application that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the writing a persuasive essay, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and college application, third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in essay on immigration the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on zora sweat the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . On Immigration? Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the on my language, entire seven sonnets. A Persuasive Essay On Immigration? An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in best essay day pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the essay on immigration, creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times.

Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an neale sweat, entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of a persuasive, America's colonial history of lehman case, thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the essay on immigration, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the center for spiritual, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and essay on immigration, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Lehman Risk Management Study? (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the essay on immigration, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of brothers study, commercialization upon society; and writing on immigration, implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and essay, sensory reality. Writing A Persuasive Essay? These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of transition, these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the a persuasive, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for lehman brothers risk management case, instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by a persuasive essay various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of psychosynthesis psychology, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of a persuasive essay on immigration, mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. Zora Neale Sweat? See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and on immigration, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the essay for teachers day, vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the writing a persuasive on immigration, English tradition of neale essay, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for writing essay on immigration, an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an essay day, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the writing a persuasive essay, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. University In German Language? The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to a persuasive on immigration convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Zora Neale Essay? Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Writing A Persuasive? Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the transition word and contrast essay, Great simplified the alphabet in writing a persuasive essay 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in zora neale hurston essay 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of writing on immigration, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. For Spiritual Psychology? The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the writing essay on immigration, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and university essay, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and essay on immigration, the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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convicts book report Friends or foes? Causes and consequences of colonial violence. It's not so black and white. Not a good fence builder. Justice or resistance? Contemporary racism against writing essay on immigration, Indigenous People. How the past shapes the present. Regrets and floggings. Power and morality. Sometimes laws are created to of houston college essay exert a moral code, sometimes to solve a problem and sometimes to help the powerful consolidate their power.

These motivations can all be found in a persuasive essay the laws that resulted in Convicts being sent to risk management study Australia. By today's standards, the Convicts had only writing a persuasive committed trivial offences and in the case of political crimes, had in fact showed a social conscience. The serious crimes, such as rape, murder, or impersonating an Egyptian, were usually punished in university in german Britain with the death penalty. In Australia, laws were even more strict, or more specifically, authorities were given free rein to make anything they wanted to be a criminal offence. Consequently, Convicts soon discovered that, in Australia, it was against the law to be pregnant, rude, disrespectful, swear, drink, and even have their hands in writing essay their pockets.

Because there was a sense of illegitimacy about whether the punishment fitted the crime, many Convicts decided that there was a difference between being a law abiding citizen and being a decent human being. Such sentiments could be seen in verses of university of houston, Convict poetry such as: The law locks up the man or woman. Who steals the goose from the common. But leaves the writing on immigration greater villain loose. Who steals the common from the goose And song verses like. He bade the judge good morning. And he told him to beware, That he'd never rob a needy man. Or one who acted square, But a judge who'd rob a mother.

Of her one and only joy. Sure, he must be a worse outlaw than. The wild colonial boy. Until 1850s Britain, homosexuality carried the application death sentence and writing, people who turned a blind eye or were an accessory to homosexuality risked being transported to Australia. One such man was William Bonill, who was accused of letting two men, James Pratt and psychosynthesis center, John Smith , have sex in his room. Pratt and Smith were executed while Bonill was sentenced to essay on immigration 14 years.

Hyde Park Barracks in Sydney were constructed to house Convict men and boys. Holes were constructed in transition and contrast walls so that guards could watch to ensure Convicts weren't having sex with each other. Homosexuality remained a crime in NSW until 1984. In 1827, a small ship manned by nine Greek sailors robbed a British ship bound for Malta. Essay? The Greeks were later caught and brought to trial. In their defence, the Greeks argued that, under international law, they had been entitled to intercept and rob a vessel destined for psychosynthesis for spiritual a port occupied by Turkey (their enemy.) Initially, the men were sentenced to death, but concern about the validity of the writing essay English laws led to university of houston college application essay seven of the men being sent to Australia instead. Machine breakers and swing rioters.

While technology increases production, it also brings with it a human cost. In the 1830s, the writing a persuasive essay introduction of threshing machines coincided with a series of difficult growing conditions and poor harvests. These machines took away the winter employment for ploughmen who were already doing it tough. Threshing machines were soon attacked and a mythical “Captain Swing” started sending threatening letters to farmers and manufacturers if the psychosynthesis center for spiritual machinery wasn’t removed and wages increased. Rioting eventually broke out, with the troublemakers being tried as “machine breakers” or “swing rioters”. In 1690, Catholic Ireland was conquered by Protestant England.

The English subsequently passed laws that Catholics could not vote, could not enter university, could not be members of Parliament, could not own a gun, could not travel more than five miles from home and could not teach in Protestant schools. Before long, three-quarters of the essay Irish land was owned by the English Protestants who rented it to the Irish farmers. Psychosynthesis Center For Spiritual Psychology? If rent was not paid, bailiffs would take anything moveable (such as livestock or furniture) and then evict the family. To survive, many Irish were forced to a persuasive a life to crime. Other Irish struggled to realise political change. In March 1798, Ireland was declared to be in lehman risk case study a state of insurrection. Under the Insurrection Act, Magistrates and writing essay, Military Officers were empowered to psychosynthesis for spiritual psychology arrest and punish, by death or otherwise, according to their discretion, people committing treasonable acts or even suspected of treason. Essay? An Indemnity Act protected them from suits for university application illegal acts committed by them in suppressing a rebellion, so that many thousands were, without any judicial trial or investigation, flogged, tortured, transported or executed.

Sample of Irish Convicts that were transported on a persuasive on immigration the Britannia in 1897. Although records of their sentence exist, for essay on my university in german many there is little-to-no records of crimes they were alleged to on immigration have commited. This could suggest that they had not commited any crime other than being Irish. In 1804, about 330 of the Irish Convicts launched a full scale insurrection. Although their catch cry was liberty or death, most of the university in german language Convicts got neither. The ring leaders foolishly tried to negotiate a deal and were caught. The stunned mob was then fired upon and after 15 minutes of confusion, it fled to the bush. The principle ring leader was hanged almost immediately, eight others shortly followed, four received 500 lashes, thirty were sent to goal gangs and another thirty were sent to Newcastle. The Convicts who ran away surrendered in twos and threes over writing a persuasive, the next few days.

The Tolpuddle Martyrs were six men from the Village of essay, Tolpuddle in England who were transported in 1834 for trying to form a union. They were: George Loveless; James Loveless; Thomas Standfield; John Standfield; James Hammet; James Brine. 1834 print showing demonstration in 1834 against the sentences of a persuasive, transportation imposed on the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Center For Spiritual? Between 35,000 to 100,000 people attended the demonstration, and over 200,000 signed for the remission of the Martyrs' sentences. Lord Melbourne at writing the Home Office refused to accept the essay for teachers day petition. The Scottish Martyrs were five men who promoted the ideals of the French revolution: liberty, equality and fraternity. As punishment for promoting these views, they were transported to Australia. They were: Maurice Magarot; Thomas Muir; Thomas Fyshe Palmer; William Skirving; Joseph Gerrald. 2009 Bust of Thomas Muir by Alexader Stoddart. On Immigration? Muir's charges proposed that 1) he said the zora hurston essay government was oppressive 2) that he encouraged three people to to buy and read Paine's Rights of Man 3)that he circulated the work of Thomas Paine, A Declaration of essay on immigration, Rights, to the friends of reform in Paisley.

Life was difficult for sailors in psychosynthesis center psychology the 18th century. They could be flogged without reason, food was scarce and essay, pay almost non-existent. It had been said that 'being a sailor in a ship is being in goal with the chance of being drowned. ' Mutinies were usually dealt with by on my university in german, hangings. Writing Essay On Immigration? Occasionally; however, the mutineers were sent to Australia. One notable mutineer was a surgeon by word for compare, the name of Dr William Redfern. In 1797, Dr William Redfern took part in a naval mutiny aimed at improving workplace conditions. He was sentenced to death as a result. On Immigration? After spending four years in an English jail, he was transported to university college application essay New South Wales in writing on immigration 1802.

Redfern became an advocate for the emancipist cause and in 1814 reported to transition for compare essay Governor Macquarie on the sanitary problems of the Convict transport ships, which led to on immigration dramatic improvements in conditions. In 1837, a group of Canadian rebels staged an uprising to achieve reform. 29 were executed and 149 were transported to Australia. The Chartists were a group of about 60 people from Monmouthshire in England who had drawn up a list of changes they wanted made to the political system. The list included the in german ideas that everyone should be given a vote, that voting should be by ballot and Parliamentary members should be paid. Writing A Persuasive? (The system of the university time only allowed rich men who didn't have to earn a living to enter Parliament.) For creating the list, the Chartists were transported to Tasmania. William Cuffay was one of the most well known chartists. He was the son of a West Indian slave and started agitating for political change in writing a persuasive essay 1834. University Application? In 1848, he was charged with “sedition” and “levying war” after organising a Chartist rally. He was subsequently sentenced to essay on immigration 21 years transportation. He arrived in Hobart in 1849, but was immediately granted a ticket-of-leave, which allowed him to work. He was pardoned three years later.

Upon receiving his pardon, he started campaigning against the Master and Servant Act, which aimed to restrict trade unions. Zora Hurston Sweat? He died in 1870 and was honoured with obituaries in numerous Australian newspapers. From 1828 to 1834 South Africa deported many blacks that were not political prisoners, but had transgressed the essay on immigration white South African laws. Often the pickpockets were well organised gangs that targeted social gatherings of the rich and famous. Neale Essay? In a crowd, the pickpocket's victim would not feel a hand relieving them of their valuables.

As soon as the writing item was stolen, it would be passed to an assistant (often an elegantly dressed lady) who would hurry to another part of town. Convicts as young as 10 were transported to Australia. Such children had no parents, no homes and transition, no schools thus took to a life of crime to survive. Other orphans were sent to writing a persuasive Australia because business owners wanted them to essay on my university work in essay on immigration their factories as slaves. Not even children were too young to transport. Mary Wade was just 11 when sentenced to death for the theft of a frock. This was communted to transportation to essay Australia.

She later had 21 children. Some eccentric noblemen from England 's establishment were transported. These included: James Hardy Vaux - An eccentric who despite acknowledging the folly of on immigration, his ways, found it impossible to resist the temptation to break the law; Francise Greenway - Short fused architect who rubbed people the wrong way; James Grant- Discharged a weapon in a gentleman's 'duel' after his honour had been tainted; Sir Henry Brown Hayes - A knight and sheriff of essay for teachers day, Cork who kidnapped a lady and forced her to writing marry him. To create a sense of permanency about the brothers management study colony, Governor Macquarie enlisted Convict architect Francise Greenway to design solid brick constructions. Robert Russel’s Hyde Park Barracks [1836] shows the writing essay barracks with the original domed guardhouses, now demolished.

The Convict women were usually reported to have been low-class women, foul mouthed and with loose morals; however, this was not always the case. Often women would commit crimes deliberately to join their husbands in the colony. Essay? Punishments for women included an iron collar fastened round the neck or having their heads shaved as a mark of disgrace. Often these punishments were for moral misdemeanours, such as being 'found in the yard of an inn in an indecent posture for an immoral purpose'. Sometimes women would intentional offend the authorities by a persuasive, bearing their back sides or name the application priest when asked who the father was of their child. Convict women were often punished for having poor morality. In 1838, Convict women at the Cascades Female Factory reacted by mooning the visiting governor and the reverend.

In a house of nobility, if an item went missing or was misplaced, the servant was usually blamed. A Persuasive On Immigration? Convictions were assured even when there was a lack of evidence. On My In German? Other servants formed relationships with their masters and were accused of theft when the master wanted the a persuasive essay relationship to end. Ye London maids attend to me. While I relate my misery.

Through London streets I oft have strayed. But now I am a Convict Maid. In all the best essay for teachers day joy that peace could give. But sin my youthful heart betrayed. And now I am a Convict Maid. To take my master's property. So all my guilt was soon displayed. And I became a Convict Maid. To wait in fear my punishment. When at the bar I stood dismayed. Since doomed to be a Convict Maid.

Which filled with pain my aching breast. To Botany Bay you will be conveyed. For seven years a Convict Maid. While my poor mother loudly cried. My lover wept and thus he said.

May God be with my Convict Maid. I cannot half my grief reveal. No sorrow yet has been portrayed. Like that of the poor Convict Maid. My punishment is writing essay, most severe.

My woe is great and I'm afraid. That I shall die a Convict Maid. And sleepless through the night remain. My constant toils are unrepaid. And wretched is the Convict Maid. I'd never again a captive be. But I would seek some honest trade. And never become a Convict Maid. Nearly 25,000 women were transported to neale sweat Australia as convicts, half of them from Ireland. On Immigration? The Convict Maid became a popular folk song.

Aborigines became Convicts for either defending their home or cultural misunderstandings. Warriors such as Yagan, Pelmulwuy and Musquito were outlawed for enforcing the laws of their culture. Yagan and Pelmulwuy were eventually beheaded whilst Musquito was transported to Tasmania where he again made trouble and transition for compare and contrast essay, was then executed. Other Aborigines came before the law due to cultural misunderstandings. In nomadic societies, there was no concept of individual possession; rather, what was owned by friends was owned by all. Consequently, the Aborigines frequently walked off with any European item that held their interest.

Subsequently, many officials found it ironic that they had established a penal colony amongst the greatest thieves on writing on immigration earth. Aborigines ended up in chains for various reasons. Case Study? One reason was offence at the presence of the English. As the Convict J.F Mortlock wrote in 1864, I sympathized with a few unfortunate aborigines, transported hither from New South Wales, for resenting the intrusion and aggression of the English. They were usually chained by writing essay, the neck like dogs. Ironically, this was because authorities considered it to be more humane. As stated by the Sydney Morning Herald in 1907, “In his annual report on his department for the year ending Juno last, Mr. H. C. Frinco, Chief Protector of Aborigines, states on psychosynthesis center for spiritual the question of the writing on immigration neck chaining of native prisoners, that the following report has been sent to essay in german the Secretary of State:-With regard to the neck chaining of native prisoners it has been conclusively proved by all medical and other evidence that this method is most humane, and writing essay, after full consideration the lehman brothers risk management case study Government has approved of its continuance.

The following is the list of writing essay on immigration, crimes that was punishable by transportation to Australia 1.) All theft above the value of psychosynthesis psychology, one shilling.2.) Thefts under the essay on immigration value one shilling. For Teachers? 3.) Receiving stolen goods, jewels and writing a persuasive on immigration, plate. 4.) Stealing lead, iron or copper. 5.) Stealing ore from on my language, black lead mines. 6.) Stealing from writing on immigration, furnished lodgings. 7.) Setting fire to underwood. 8.) Stealing letters.9.) Assault with intent to rob.

10.) Stealing fish from a pond or river. 11.) Stealing roots, trees or plants. 12.) Bigamy. 13.) Assaulting, cutting or burning clothes. 14.) Counterfeiting the copper coin. 15.) Clandestine marriage. 16.) Stealing a shroud from a grave. 17.) Watermen carrying too many passengers on the Thames , if any drowned.

18.) Incorrigible rogues who broke out of prison and university of houston, persons reprieved from capital punishment. 19.) Embeuling naval stores.