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Ap European History Summer Assignment 2012. Dustin Winski Jun 26th, 2012 AP Euro AP European History Summer Assignment 2012 Why did trade and travel decline after the thesis example, fall of Rome? After the fall of Rome, with no government to supply protection or to keep the rads and bridges repaired, travel became difficult and dangerous. This danger, coupled with ignorance and lehman case study, lack of desire to change the thesis, situation by the powerful lords, whose manors required little trade, led to the decline in travel and lehman management, trade. Who was the first “Holy Roman Emperor” and how did he get that title? After restoring Pope Leo III in Rome from thesis example which he had been driven by invaders, Charlemagne was crowned by the Poe as “Emperor of the Romans”. The Frankish Kingdom them became known as the Holy Roman Empire, a name that would remain until the Empire was dissolved by Napoleon in 1806. What is the difference between the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire was started by Charlemagne and was centered in do my France.

It was called the Holy Roman Empire#8221; due to the fact that the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the example, Emperor. Value Essay Thesis. What were the connections between “The Holy Roman Empire” and “The Church”? The Holy Roman Empire was an endeavor by the Catholic Church and Christian kings to restore in their own image the crumbled remains of the secular achievements of the ancient pagan Roman Empire. Example. Define feudalism and describe the characteristics of its organization. Feudalism was also a social and economics organization based on music lyrics promote violence essay, a series of reciprocal relationships. The king in thesis example theory owned the land which he granted to lords who in return would give service, usually in the form of military aid, to the king. For both, since the essay for college, King#8217;s writ didn#8217;t extend directly through a country, they were often reliant on local governing mechanisms. In practice, that usually meant the nobility of the region involved, whose loyalty was to their own family and its privileges rather than to the monarchy. What were the benefits supposedly derived from the feudal system?

Who benefited the thesis, most? Feudal manors provided both political and social organization. They also were individual economics units , nearly self-sufficient due to medieval warfare, the difficulties to travel, and the resultant lack of trade. The feudal estate featured a manor-home, usually a fortified castle surrounded by protective walls, belonging to thesis, the lord, surrounded by fields, herds and villages where serfs lived and worked. What was the importance of “The Church” and the Christian religion in the lives of the Europeans in the Middle Ages? Religion and the after-life became the focal point of thought and living. The influence of religion can also clearly be seen in the art, architecture, literature, and music of the time.

This was most likely cause because life was so hard on earth, the peasants endured it concentrating on thesis example, and longing for their reward in the after-life. How did the ritual and sacraments of the Church establish a constant, ongoing relationship with its individual members? The believers of the Roman Catholic Church believed the seven sacraments kept an individual constantly connected to to find thesis, God and thesis, the Church from birth to death. The Church led the belief that one could only get to heaven through good deeds and observing the sacraments. How did the Church us the powers of excommunication and interdiction in maintaining its power? The idea of essay on eco environment survival happy, excommunicating individuals kept people from observing the example, sacraments which gave them the ability to enter heaven.

Also, whole geographic areas could be punished through interdiction which prohibited the essay, performance of any of the sacraments in that district. This made the thesis, Church more organized than any other political state in Europe. How was Education, learning and knowledge of Europe preserved during the lowest point of the Middle Ages, the so-called “Dark Ages”? Education was secured by the people being put into strict division of social classes most notably the Church, peasants, and the bourgeoisie. What was the dominant philosophy of the Middle Ages called? Who was its most outstanding spokesman? What were its basic beliefs, and how did the philosophy view life and understanding? The dominant philosophy of the late Middle Ages was best articulated by lehman brothers risk management study St. Thomas Aquinas and known as scholasticism. Who belonged to each of the three estates of thesis, medieval European society and thesis in edinburgh, what was the primary duty of a member of each estate?

How was this different from the thesis example, social classes in modern society? The first of the essay on eco friendly makes, estates were composed of the Church. The main purpose for example this estate would be to claim the authority of God. The second estate consisted of the nobility of #8216;society#8217;. The primary focus of the nobility were to function as warriors. The third estate had little to essay on eco makes survival, no power in that time of society and composed of peasants and laymen. This changed throughout Europe with the coming of feudalism.

This differs from modern society for the facts of a more prosperous middle class. Thesis Example. Describe the guilds. Who made up their membership and what was their influence on the business practices of the late Middle Ages? In the middle ages, the #8216;Guilds#8217; were labor market intermediaries organizing training, working conditions. These merchants and craftsmen formed the basis for a new class of townspeople, the bourgeoisie. They would be the basis of the growing middle class. How did the guilds improve the lot of freemen?

How did they help business and trade? How did they restrict its growth? The improvement of the freemen could be seen from a point of their increase of professions. Essay For College. The benefits of this system would be the systematic control and increase of certain professions that were needed at the time. This order was kept to maintain employment and necesity for the freemen. However, as a result of the control over the market, restrictions on personal choice ended up restricting its growth. Who were the bourgeoisie? Why did they not fit in the traditional class structure of the Middle Ages? The bourgeoisie were merchants and craftsmen formed the basis for a new class of town dwellers. They did not fit into what would be considered traditional because of thesis example, their system and plans of growing the middle class.

Why was the social structure of do my homework please, Europe challenged by the growing number of free townspeople and the changing economy? With the example, strengthening control of the cheerleading essay for college, kings, powers and influence of the thesis example, feudal lords led to leaving more land in where in edinburgh the hands of fewer people. This led to the even farther decline in the idea of feudalism. How did the Crusades help to begin the change from Medieval society into a modern society? The Crusades stimulated trade by certain political, social, and economic changes. Thesis. This was achieved by the unknowing attacks on feudal lords and in turn gave the increased power to the kings. Essay On Eco Survival. The changes developed after the old nobility lacked the wealth to keep up with the kings. Why are the Crusades sometimes called “Successful failures”?

The Crusaders led to the eventual fading out of feudal states in the most of Europe and thesis, is an important part of European expansion and colonialism. Why and in what ways did kings and central governments grow stronger at the end of the cheerleading, Middle Ages? The Kings helped facilitate the forming of countries by uniting small feudal states into large kingdoms. They helped develop the idea of a central government within these kingdoms. This centralized government was indeed stronger than the smaller micro-state governments . What obstacles stood in the way of the creation of strong central governments? Since strong central governments often emerge from weaker central governments or loose confederations a central government may also have to deal with regional lords who regard centralization as an infringement on thesis example, their own ower. Why was the cheerleading essay, re-establishment of thesis example, trade so important to the transformation of Europe? Re-establishment of trade was very important due to the fact of the bourgeoisie wanting to create a wider middle class. This could not happen because of what current state Europe was in due to the idea of feudalism.

Also, where there is any contact between two civilizations ideas will be traded amongst them, giving each civilization new ideas. Essay On Eco Friendly Environment Makes Happy. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out.

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2013 Peace Essay Contest Grade 4-5 Winners. First Place, Andion Dizon, gr. 5, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Perisa Ashar, gr. 4, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools.

Caroline Crowley, gr. 5, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Isabel Kump, gr. 4, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Rebecca Mann, gr. 5, Clover Hill ES, Chesterfield Co. Public Schools. Ashanti Rives, gr.

4, Walnut Hill ES, Petersburg Public Schools. First Place: Andion Dizon, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. 3 Simple Words, 3 Simple Statements. “I am sorry.” “I love you.” “I forgive you.” In my eyes, peace is not just a word that can describe something or someone. They are the statements said above. Peace is the little things people do every day. There may be many different definitions of thesis example, peace, but the management case, most important one to thesis, me is the one my mother has taught me.

My mother has always said that God tells us to forgive each other, give to thesis, others, and love each other. Does that not explain peace itself? Do those statements above not show peace? I think that if every single person on this planet lived by these three simple rules, and said those three simple statements everyday, the world might be ready to move onto thesis, the bigger acts of kindness such as stopping wars or lowering crime rates. As I have said in risk study, the paragraph before, my mother is the biggest influence I get in making peace. However, my mother is just teaching me the thesis example, will of God. God has given all of us the chance to value essay thesis, be alive. We should use that chance to be nice to thesis example, other people, to where to find thesis, forgive them.

When one little boy or girl says, “I am sorry,” the other boy or girl may start to forgive as well. Those little acts of kindness spread and spread until the whole world is contaminated with forgiveness. Thesis? When I hurt my sister or my parents, I try to forgive them as best as I can. Study? Once, I ripped a very important fashion book that belonged to my sister. I said that I was sorry and repaired the thesis example, book with tape. Then, I said that I would make up for it with one chore she asked me to perform. So, I had to take out the trash for essay, her for one day.

In that example, one little mistake was forgiven and thesis example, one little grudge that could have happened was reduced to smithereens. The next rule of peace my mother has taught me is to give to others. Cheerleading For College? I know the perfect follower of God’s rule for this one. In September of thesis, 1946, Mother Teresa found her inspiration of giving with God’s love to others. She cared for the sick, poor, and elderly without a moment’s hesitation. Even when someone had been left to die on the side of the street, Mother Teresa had picked him or her up and cared for him or her till death. That is truly an act of kindness that can bring peace to others around you. Brothers Management Case Study? Even though I may not seem like I can do such extravagant things with my life, I can do smaller things like making others feel more comfortable when they are sick or giving someone a Band-Aid when they get a cut. Small things like that can go a long way. When people get married, they vow to always love and example, care for their husband or wife. However, some couples get a divorce and never love each other again.

My mother has taught me that that is value thesis, not how God wants us to bring peace to the world. When we are little, we should love our family, siblings, friends, neighbors, classmates, or anyone and when we grow up, we should still follow that. My mother has always told me to think before I do or say anything. Thesis? I may think that what I am saying about another person is a joke while the other person might think it is an insult. That is showing that you care and essay on eco environment survival, love the other person enough to take the time to thesis, edit what you are about to where thesis, say or do. Everyone deserves our love and has the example, right to feel loved.

Going back to the paragraph before this, Mother Teresa showed her love and the love of God to essay friendly environment, everyone who had no one left to love him or her. We should do the same. Not just when we get married, but from birth to thesis example, death. If everyone in the world cared for lyrics promote, one another, think about how wars might be stopped or how crime rates could be lowered! When people say, “I love you” or “I am here for you,” things have already changed on the Earth around us. Thesis? You have passed that gift of love and care to another person beside you and please, then they pass it on to another and example, another and another! Love can be contagious if you let it.

The Earth is of life essay, a beautiful planet and the people on the face of the earth are beautiful as well. My mother has made a big difference in my life when she taught me the word of God. God wants us to follow those three simple rules, forgive each other, give to others, and love each other. We cannot wait for someone like Mother Teresa or Mahatma Gandhi to thesis example, jump-start the spreading of peace. People like you and me can do that in the little words and friendly environment, statements we say every day. My mother has really given me the biggest influence in my life to making peace. Example? She has taught me to always follow what God wants you to do. We may already have our future in our minds, but we cannot pursue that future until we can learn to forgive, give, and love everyone. Only when our hearts are open for giving forgiveness and love can God tell us what we are meant to do on this planet.

Only then are we ready to really bring peace to the world. “I forgive you.” “I love you.” “I am sorry.” Second Place (tie) : Sarah N. Bender gr. 5, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. Life is a book. Music Lyrics Promote Violence? Ever since Adam and Eve stepped foot on the Earth, the fate and history of example, humans has been recorded as one long story that won’t end for as long as we live. There are moments of peace, moments of value of life thesis, war, moments of strife, and example, moments of essay on eco friendly environment makes happy, pride. We are the next chapter.

If we don’t improve the story, the next generation must clean up our mess. To do that, we have to thesis example, have peace. Value Essay? Our lives are each an unwritten page. Thesis Example? It’s our job to write on it the right way. Imagine that you are a white person sitting on a bus.

Sounds of do my homework please, commotion ripple through the thesis example, still air. You peer outside through your dusty window. Policemen and black children are participating in a bloody battle. White men are rallying the police on. The children are hitting at do my please, the attacking police with their signs. Thesis Example? You see a black woman cry out. One of the children is music promote violence, dead on the sidewalk, blood streaming from a round hole in his chest. A police officer puts a gun back in his belt. You see slogans such as ‘Peace for all’ and ‘Equality’ flash before your eyes, the blood stains of thesis example, their carriers splashing on the worn cardboard. A grim smile crosses your face. Please? Suddenly, the noise ceases.

A tall, lean figure strides into thesis the noise. All eyes turn to face him. Whispers fill the humid air. You turn, and your friends are gasping and pointing at value essay thesis, him. The famous Martin Luther King Jr. has arrived on thesis example, the scene. He stands in the middle of the group. Cheerleading For College? Wordlessly, he kneels down, draws a cross on his head and thesis example, blesses the dead boy. After that, he stands up and walks away. The crowd stands speechless, but the friendly environment makes, fight doesn’t continue. Everyone solemnly walks away.

The greatest peacemaker in history has just left his mark on example, the world. His chapter marks glory and a new age of peace. It would do us all good to follow his example. Even though there are no more street fights, our world isn’t as peaceful as it was during his time. There’s no better way to prove that then to highlight the events of September 11, 2001. Osama Bin Laden and his men hijacked 4 planes. Two crashed into the North and South towers of the do my homework, World Trade Center in Manhattan (Twin Towers), and the buildings collapsed within two hours of the crashes. The buildings became a mass of falling debris and flame, leading to the partial or complete destruction of all the other buildings in the World Trade Center and 4 buildings in it’s immediate area. Example? The third plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, destroying it’s western side. The last plane crashed into please a field as the passengers attacked the thesis, hijackers aboard.

After these attacks, all 19 hijackers and all of the civilians aboard the planes died, as well as hundreds of people working in the attacked areas. While history boasts a golden age of peacemakers, but a record number of fatalities and where in edinburgh, casualties because of violence, present day has no shortage. The one difference is that today, violence may happen for no reason. On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza secured the thesis, fates of 20 children, 6 adults, hundreds of families, and an entire community. Case? Those children had done nothing to hurt Adam. Example? One family whose child had been taken lived across the where thesis in edinburgh, street from the thesis example, Lanzas. It made me heartbroken to find out that they believed that they could have stopped this if they had reached out more. I think that it would have made Lanza guilty, but I think that the action wouldn’t have been stopped. He had never learned about peace from his family.

Ever since I showed that I understood what my parents said, they have taught me all I needed to know about peace. I learned that everyone was created equal, and that we had gone through very tough times to value of life essay thesis, resolve that issue. I learned that our words can be used to heal or hurt a nation. Thesis? Our fists can only hurt. They’re there to help us pick things up, not express our feelings. We have to live life with a peaceful mantra, air, and attitude.

I also learned that our actions rub off on others. I have used what I have learned to value, try and make the world a better place for all of the people I know. I love my neighborhood. For the most part, everyone is kind to example, one another, and we have area parties with playful competition. Once, on the Fourth of in edinburgh, July, we had a fireworks contest. My little subdivision was screaming and cheering for our fireworks ‘master,’ and the next day, my friend from the other subdivision admitted that they were doing the thesis, same. Essay Thesis? The one fight going on is our on-going fight with the Homeowner’s Association. From the day we first asked for a swim team, it’s been petitions, reasoning, and constant pleading. They won’t budge, and every summer, the thesis, fire is fueled by our enragement.

Our neighborhood stands as a team, fighting for one thing. This may not be what many people believe to be a fight, but it is. It’s just a peaceful one. The book of peace has many gripping chapters. Brothers Management Case? It’s not just a history textbook. It’s a story, with villains and heros and several climaxes. Osama Bin Laden and example, Adam Lanza may have tried to destruct the peace tower in all of our hearts, but people like Martin Luther King Jr. will help us build it back up.

Humanity has turned the thesis, page. We sit at the computer, ready to type up a new chapter in history. We are the characters. It’s up to us to decide if we’re good or bad. As we type, we have to example, decide. How do we want our story to end? What? Peace is a Weapon!

Second Place (tie) : Ashwin Prabu, gr. 5 , Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. What is peace? Is it the quietness one experiences while concentrating on a test or is it just relaxing on the warm sand in Myrtle Beach. Cheerleading? I asked my dad what peace really is and his response made me change my whole entire view of peace. He said that peace has many definitions. One definition of peace is the end of example, violence. Another definition of value essay, peace is to never use violence to show your emotions. He also asked me that have I ever thought of example, peace as an effective weapon against violence? My dad told me that his grandfather was a freedom fighter under Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian Revolution and essay friendly environment makes happy, that he was a great person who used peace against violence.

Then, I started to do research on example, Gandhi. I learned that Gandhi used words instead of fists and helped India win freedom against the British. Gandhi’s peacefulness spread all across the world. Cheerleading Essay? It also influenced Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, and many people across the earth to use peace, words and love instead of violence and war. Next I researched about Martin Luther King Jr. I found out thesis that he also used peace to prevent segregation between Whites and Blacks. He organized rallies and provided peaceful leadership to the African Americans to make Whites and lehman brothers case study, Blacks be treated equally. “I have decided to stick with love and peace. Hate is too great of a burden to bear” was one of his quotes. I wanted to research more great people who used peace against violence and I searched for Nelson Mandela.

I learned that Mandela fought for multi- racial elections and that Africans will have the same rights as whites. He didn’t use violence or start a war against thesis, the apartheid. He used peaceful means and he won against the apartheid. Music Promote Essay? Finally In 1994 Nelson Mandela won the first multi – racial election and became the first Black president of South Africa. Finally, I found out that Aung San Suu Kye also used peace against thesis example, violence. She is a Burmese freedom fighter who is promote violence, currently fighting to end dictatorship in example, Myanmar.

She has only organized rallies and gave speeches. She did not start wars or fights. Peace is really a great weapon against violence. This lesson my dad has taught me and my research on all these great people has made me be peaceful in my community today. Whenever someone riles me or bullies me, I do not use violence to get back at them. Instead, I tell them that what they are doing is wrong and hurtful and of life essay, it actually makes them stop. It is much easier than punching them back in example, the face. What is peace I wonder once again………………… I think I know now.

Perisa Ashar, gr. 4, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. When a country wins a war, I wonder if they really won the war. I think about that because even though a country “won” the war, they have still lost their weapons, wealth, but most important of promote essay, all: precious human lives. I think when someone dies, while trying to thesis example, defend their country; their family might be grieving about them because the person who died might be their mother, father, son, daughter, brother, or sister. Homework? When someone dies, they are gone forever, and no money or victory can bring them back again. War also brings a Depression on both sides of a war. In a Depression, people lose their jobs, and they do not have any money to support their family’s needs, and more people perish every day. War only brings hatred and destruction. Example? People need to solve conflicts in a peaceful way and not be fighting in value of life essay thesis, wars. Our war can also lead to thesis example, another war.

When I visited the promote, Holocaust Museum in Washington D.C. I learned that when Germany lost in thesis, World War I, they had to on eco, pay a lot of thesis, debt and they had difficult times. Then Adolph A. Hitler became popular, but when he came in power, he had a lot of hatred against lehman brothers case, Jewish people and he did cruel things to them and that finally lead to World War II. One of the things that my mom teaches me about example peace is to get to know and connect with people, even if they are from different cultures, religions, and countries. She teaches me this because it broadens my horizons, teaches me what other people are going through across the world, and how they are resolving their problems peacefully. For example, when I went to Kolkata, India we visited “The Queen Victoria Museum” and I learned how India got its independence from cheerleading for college Great Britain, thanks to thesis, India’s freedom fighters. India achieved freedom by using nonviolence, under the cheerleading for college, leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

If India could achieve freedom and peace by using nonviolence, other countries can also solve their problems peacefully, so no precious human lives would be lost. My parents have also taught me to make friends from other cultures because they may look different from the outside, but inside they might be really nice and kind. If we respect each other’s cultures, we can all live in peace and harmony. This year, I have more friends who are from different cultures. I enjoy playing with them and learning about their cultures. I also have friends from all around the example, world.

I can call them every other week. Where To Find Thesis In Edinburgh? I even have a pen-pal who lives in Niger. Thesis Example? I write to her whenever I have spare time. It helps me understand their opinion; experience, and culture. Now, I have noticed that I am much more accepting of brothers risk management case study, other people and also more open-minded to their point of view. Whenever I have a conflict with one of my classmates, I control my tone of voice and I explain it to them in nonviolent way. If they are still rude, I speak to thesis example, them in a strong, firm and, yet not in a hurtful way. I think people should remember lessons that we have learned from previous wars, wise leaders and brothers study, from our own experiences. These lessons have taught us to be more respectful to each other and to discuss problems instead of fighting about it. If people follow these rules, the thesis, word would be a very peaceful place.

Caroline Crowley, gr. 5, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. I have no idea if there is an even greater solution for peace, but I have learned over my eleven years of life that religion is the true source of peace, love, friendship, and forgiveness. I was born and raised into a very religious Christian family, and my parents taught me to forgive and love everyone, especially my enemies. Why should we do this? To follow God’s example. We were made in his image, so we should love others as he loves us. This, and many other important life lessons, is the knowledge I grew up on.

When I say religion, I mostly mean Christians, but whatever religion you may be, if you feel peace when you practice it, that feeling of peace is what I am going to talk about. As I walk into value of life essay church, I feel a sensation of example, calming, relaxing peace. How I love to value of life, go to thesis example, church and essay friendly environment makes survival happy, listen to thesis example, the wonderful talks and the testimonies of others. This is my solution for peace. Cheerleading Essay? Many people say that family, friends, or happiness is the thesis example, true source of peace, but religion ties all of this together. When you know that God is thesis in edinburgh, with you, you can feel happiness. When you go to thesis, church, you can pray and sing with you friends and family. It is my parents that have given me the chance to brothers case, receive peace, but it is my religion that I have received it from. When I practice my religion, I feel like I am doing the right thing, and thesis example, that my loved ones are proud of value of life thesis, me. Because of my family’s teachings, I have always wanted to be a good example to others, who may not be doing what is example, right. Where To Find In Edinburgh? Also, my family has taught me to not smoke, drink alcohol, or do anything harmful to my body.

This is example, a wonderful example of music essay, love, and thesis example, shows that my relatives care about where to find in edinburgh me so much, that they do everything they can to keep me safe. There have been times in my life when I have been drenched, blow-dried, and warmly rapped around in peace and thesis, comfort. Cheerleading? Just knowing that you are doing the thing, is better than the example, warmest, comforting, most indescribable bed you could ever crawl into. You feel peace. You feel and be loved. All you have to do is find a bright, illuminating example who you can follow to draw you nearer and nearer to light and peace. When and where can you feel peace? Is it just when you are in music promote, holy, spiritual places? No. Thesis? You can feel peace almost anywhere.

I’ve had many experiences like this. Once, I was just sitting quietly in please, my room, and for some queer reason I felt relaxed. I felt relaxed from example all the in edinburgh, stress that had been weighing down my shoulders. Everything seemed very peaceful and thesis example, happy. This is one example, but sometimes your feelings of peace are personal. Most of mine have been like that. I always look at my life and cheerleading for college, realize that I am very lucky. Example? I have a wonderful family that has taught me wonderful things that have brought peace into cheerleading essay my life.

Isabel Kump, gr. Thesis? 4, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. What Peace Means To Me. When I think about peace, I imagine a blue sky with a rainbow stretched across it. Other people imagine the beach, the mountains, their favorite animal and other relaxing things. Peace is what makes our country and the world a decent and safe place to live. My family has always told my little brother and me to be nice, caring, and peaceful. To me, peace is very important. It means not going around starting fights and arguments and making sure to on eco makes survival, have a positive outlook on life.

Without realizing it, my grandfather has influenced me the most on peace and is my role model. My grandfather is very nice and loving. When my brother and I get into a fight or an argument, my grandfather steps in, and without doing anything that might upset us further, calms us down and makes us feel better. Peace is also about being calm, which my grandfather is very good at. My grandfather is the best in the universe, and I have learned a lot from him. Peace is also what helps our President and the government make treaties with other countries to keep peace between them. Without peace, the world would constantly be in wars. I’m glad we have peace, aren’t you? You probably have heard about the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary in Newtown. When I found out about it, I felt like someone had taken my stomach away and replaced it with a hard, cold rock. I felt sick over all the kids that had been killed, and I felt very sad for the parents of the kids who had died.

The person who shot the kids was a very good example of a person who cares nothing about peace whatsoever. He was cruel and heartless to commit the shooting and not even give a thought to the consequences-for himself and for the families of the kids who died-of killing all those people. I feel very sad also because there has never been an elementary school shooting in thesis, all of U.S. history except for the one at Sandy Hook. The President and the whole country was disturbed and grief-stricken when they learned of the shooting, and I am not sure if Newtown will ever be the same again. Anyway, we can all learn something from the shooting: to always be peaceful and to never lose control of please, ourselves or take our anger out on other people. In general, peace is very important and life wouldn’t be the same without it. We should all work to keep our cool and, as my grandfather taught me, to help bring about peace to example, others and the world. Rebecca Mann, gr.

5, Clover Hill Elementary School, Chesterfield County Public Schools. Peace is the most wonderful thing in the world. I don’t know what I would do without peace. I’m so glad my parents and family taught me about it. My parents told me to be nice and help others.

All t he time, I follow my family’s lead. I want to homework, be peace-loving forever. Every day, I try in small ways to thesis, make the earth a better place. I’ve been nice and caring for music lyrics promote essay, as long as I can remember, so I don’t see why I should stop now. Almost every day, I believe that the more I help, the less horrible the example, world will be. I can’t wait to grow up. Earlier in my life, I’ve done so many great deeds. Thesis? Last year, with my friends, family and my family’s friends, I helped clean up and example, remodel an old lady’s house. Every year my community does a yard sale. Recycling old items and using less helps the world. Everyone also [contributes] because if someone needs or wants something there will not be shortages for others.

Most of the time, when my friends are being bullied, I stand up for them. I love peace and hate wars. Wars kill or hurt the innocent. Like I said, peace is the best feeling ever. When I grow up, I will help others in need.

I will join organizations or clubs that will help make the world a better place. The clubs I’ll go to will help the world go green globally. I will join an organization where I can help others around me. I think Habitat for Humanity is a good one, and everyone is happy. LIVING IN A WORLD OF PEACE. Ashanti Rives, gr. 4, Walnut Hill Elementary School, Petersburg Public Schools. Everyone likes to live in a world of peace. I think this is important because it is very nice and essay environment survival, can keep you away from thesis example drama. My parents have taught me many things about being peaceful, especially at thesis in edinburgh, school.

They taught me to be respectful at all times and to walk away from drama and to never get involved in it. Thesis Example? This affects my actions in school and in music lyrics promote violence, my community because they motivate me to do the right thing .This is thesis example, very important because getting into drama will make you a witness or the one who may be blamed when there is a problem. Peace is also important because being mean, rude, or harmful for no reason at all is not being peaceful. This happens at school a lot mostly outside, but my friends and I just walk away. Value Of Life? My mom tells me this is the right thing to do. She tells me that to be peaceful it is important for everyone to get along within the example, community and at essay for college, school.

She also told me to never join a fight between other people, she tells me when this happens go tell a teacher. This can help stop the violence in our school. Pretty much all the thesis example, people I know in my family tell me to never hang out with the wrong group of people because they may be the lehman risk management case, ones to get me in trouble. When my brother and I come over to stay at my grandma’s house she tells us to stop arguing, because it’s not nice and that one day we will need each other. Peace is important in everyday life in many ways. Example? You may even earn some peace in return of your kindness. You could be peaceful by. Walking away from drama. Being generous to others. Essay? Involve people in thesis example, a game or activity when they are left out.

Talking out your problems instead of using violence. Respecting different races or culture and on eco friendly makes survival happy, accepting everybody as one. The World Peace Festival started in 2011. This festival supports peace and helps businesses and thesis, leaders all over the world learn about the importance of do my please, peace in example, our life. With their help, the business Ben Jerry, that produces some of the best ice cream worldwide, began using their popular business and publicity to give back to their community. By doing this they hoped to risk study, make peace and thesis, better lives for their customers. There are many ways to improve peace in our world. Businesses, schools, and even our communities must join together as one in order for this to lyrics violence, happen. Thesis? To do so, everyone must have the same goal for our nation. But most importantly……………….

Everyone must say “YES” to peace!

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Michigan Ross. 2017 Michigan Ross Two-Year MBA Essay Questions: Class of 2020. Several short-answer questions with multiple options each, plus a standard career goals essay: Your main pitch is in the formal goals essay: Please share your short-term and long-term career goals. Thesis Example. What skills/strengths do you have that will be relevant to your career goals? How will Ross prepare you for your goals? (300 words) Hmmm#8230; EssaySnark likes the essay clarity they#8217;ve given here, with the separate questions #8212; but covering FOUR SPECIFIC ANSWERS in only 300 words. That#8217;s a tall order. We wish they#8217;d been more permissive on thesis example, the essay length on this one.

Anyway, a solid answer to all aspects of this question is EXACTLY what you#8217;ll end up with if you do EssaySnark#8217;s Career Goals App Accelerator! The potentially more interesting #8212; and more challenging, if you haven#8217;t yet grasped the importance of being authentic in your MBA essays #8212; are the short-answer questions. You get choices here! You#8217;ll be choosing one from each group of value essay, prompts: Group 1 I want people to know that I: I turned an idea into action when I: I made a difference when I: Group 2 I showed my resilience when I: I was humbled when: I am out of my comfort zone when: Group 3 I was aware that I am different when: I find it challenging when people: A valuable thing I have taught someone: These questions will require extensive BRAINSTORMING and even more STRATEGY and we lay out some dos and don#8217;ts in our Michigan Ross MBA guide for 2017, including which pairs of questions should not be answered together, how dated your stories can be, and example, what other topics maybe won#8217;t serve you so well in these individual prompts, based on what we#8217;ve seen from others before you. Ross usually has an optional essay too (though they encourage you to use bullets if you can!). Value Of Life. Full-Time MBA App Deadlines for Michigan Ross. Thesis Example. Deadlines and the schedule are about the same as they had last year. In the past, they have required any international Rd 1 applicants who want to cheerleading participate in the Team Exercise to travel to Ann Arbor.

Make plans to do so if you#8217;re serious about this school (or, try in Round 2 instead). In 2016, interview invites were issued the week of October 24th but if you weren#8217;t interviewed, then there was still a possibility of example, being offered a spot on the waitlist when final decisions come out in for college, December. Meaning, nobody was released in this round, as happens at thesis, other schools. Round 2: January 2, 2018 Harumph. Ross is inflicting the same pain on this year#8217;s BSers as they did last time. Apparently they didn#8217;t hear our plea from January! This deadline is in edinburgh, IMMEDIATELY after the holiday.

Very very difficult. Thesis Example. Last season in Round 2, they released all no-go candidates on February 17th. See the useful decision tree they posted on their blog in February 2015 to better understand how the admissions cycle works. Michigan Ross MBA Recommendations. Do My Please. Again in example, 2017, just one recommendation (which as we said in music lyrics, 2014 we don#8217;t think is the best thing for applicants, but they#8217;re sticking with it). Thesis. This rec must be from current direct supervisor, or you need to explain why not in the optional essay. Three main questions for your recommender to answer. Lots of where to find thesis in edinburgh, resources for choosing your recommender available here on the blahg; if you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. EXCELLENT examples of accmplshmts that show distinction.

Thank you Soojin @MichiganRoss congrats on amazing class! https://t.co/qqvNqDpMHa. Michigan Ross Interviews and Team Based Exercise. Starting halfway through the example 2012 admissions cycle, Ross piloted a team interview format which they standardized upon in 2013. Lehman Brothers Management Study. There is (almost) no way to prepare for this; it#8217;s very impromptu, by design. If you#8217;re a decent person with some manners who treats others well, not too shy and not too pushy, you should do just fine. It#8217;s still important to go through the standard interview prep process, of example, course, so that you#8217;re fluid and essay on eco friendly environment, comfortable in thesis, talking about your interest in the MBA especially since Ross does not have a question about career goals in its current essays. You need to be prepared to discuss those. We live-tweeted the Ross admissions webinar on 12/16/14: From @MichiganRoss prez: You need to know yr career goals for the adm interview, but we know that might change. Lots of support on job chgs. From @MichiganRoss prez: Recruiters want people who are smart and confident, but not cocky.

And that#39;s what we want too. (Us too!) We#39;re looking for brothers management case, reasons to admit you, not deny you. This perfectly sums up our impressions of thesis, @MichiganRoss admissions team! From @MichiganRoss prez: Don#39;t make a sport of the #GMAT in other words, don#39;t get obsessive with retakes. No essay on Why MBA/Why Ross/Why now for @MichiganRoss but it WILL COME UP IN THE INTERVIEW! Why Ross esp important. Strong emphasis on attending the @MichiganRoss Team Exercise for your interview if you#39;re invited. .@MichiganRoss We mean truly optional for the optional essay. Use for cheerleading, gap in example, resume, glitch in academics-NOT for expounding on other stuff. Recommenders should answer the questions we#39;ve asked not just submit a generic letter to @MichiganRoss. Manage up in this process. Where To Find Thesis In Edinburgh. Frm @MichiganRoss abt waiving right to view rec: It doesnt matter to example us but keep in mind how it may affect how yr recmdr provides input.

No scholarship $ left for brothers management case, @MichiganRoss Rd 3 if you care about being considered for free money, apply now! #waitlisted candidates shd focus on areas you can control #GMAT, ways you can strengthen yr app. From @MichiganRoss but true everywhere! About 90% of thesis example, @MichiganRoss students end up changing career (industry or function) great place for lehman brothers risk management, career changers. This guide is new for this year#8217;s short-answer groups of questions and the short-term/long-term/skills and strengths and example, Ross essay! For reference: Past Season Ross Essays. The reason we include these past-year questions is so you get a better sense of the school. Studying what they#8217;ve asked before helps you understand more of what they value. When they keep questions consistent, then you know they#8217;re important; when they make changes, the deltas can give you additional perspective. Click to view 2016 questions.

They#8217;ve clarified what they#8217;re looking for with these individual questions. Thank you, Ross! Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of outside of your professional life ? How does it shape who you are today? 400 words (emphasis added) What is your desired career path and why? 400 250 words (ouch!) The first essay question is near-identical to what they had last year except that they#8217;re being specific: They don#8217;t want professional stuff here! That bolded text is thesis, new. The second question is thesis example, identical except, dang, only 250 words now? That means you#8217;re going to thesis answer the question succinctly, right? Right! The career goals should be a natural outgrowth of what you#8217;ve done to date.

That doesn#8217;t mean that your goals must be only a continuation of your current career. You can certainly pursue something very new and thesis example, different through the on eco makes happy advantage of the Ross MBA. But it should be fairly obvious how you#8217;re qualified and capable to thesis go do this new thing, based on to find thesis in edinburgh, your background – and thesis, Essay 2 is where to make the case for that. Your short-term goal in value of life essay, particular shouldn#8217;t be such a radical departure from everything you#8217;ve ever done before that your reader becomes skeptical in seeing how you#8217;ll pull it off. The way you tie these pieces together will be important. Example. (Wanna know how to do that?

We go into lots and cheerleading for college, lots of details in the Ross app guide!) Plus, here#8217;s the May 2015 announcement from the thesis example Ross adcom on these questions again that#8217;s from last year with perhaps the essay best essay-writing advice we#8217;ve ever heard from an thesis adcom: #8220;You can even start with, “I am most proud of….'#8221; (hint: one of the worst and music promote, also most common mistakes is not answering the question yes it happens all the time). Starting your essay with a direct statement like that, that incorporates the question in it, is a wise move indeed. Example. Ross got 30% more apps in two years#8217; ago Round 2 and on eco friendly environment survival happy, we heard that 2016#8217;s Round 2 was also high for them as was this past Round 1 in Fall 2016. For Round 2 2017, the example admissions team will be traveling around to conduct interviews and do my, the Team Exercise in Delhi, Shanghai, and example, Tokyo and of life essay, you can do it in Ann Arbor too, of course, or you have the option of thesis, interviewing locally with an alum, pretty much anywhere you are in the world. However, we suggest that you plan to attend one of these four locations so that you can participate in the Team Exercise (HIGHLY recommended) . Expect Round 2 interviews to go out in two waves in lehman brothers risk, January with the interviews / team exercise happening in thesis, February (if you do not get the do my please interview invitation in the second wave, you#8217;re either going to be waitlisted or denied; this year in Round 2 they are officially releasing all no-go candidates on February 17th, though there#8217;s still a chance that you get an offer then to stick around on example, the waitlist even if they#8217;re not asking you to where thesis interview yet). [end discussion of 2016 questions.] Click to example view 2015 questions. Hey @MichiganRoss: Your Essay #1 is worded differently in your app and on your blog announcement. Is and why? in or out this year? After we sent them that today (8/28/15), Ross updated their website Essay section to reflect the same version of their question as they have in the app, as noted below. Lehman Brothers Risk Management Study. Honestly, the #8220;why#8221; should be pretty obvious through the way you answer the thesis question, so our advice is to consider the prompt unchanged!

Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of and why? How does it shape who you are today? (400 words) What is essay on eco survival, your desired career path and thesis, why? (400 words) Woo-hoo! A school resurrects a career goals question after having ditched it in past years! This makes EssaySnark very happy particularly when Ross had to communicate to candidates last year, after they had no essay asking about goals, that they really do care about value essay, goals after all and to thesis example please be prepared to discuss them in your interview. That was a little confusing. The first essay question is near-identical to what they had last year except that they#8217;re just asking it once (last year they had the same question twice, once asknig for a professional thing, and one asking for where, a personal thing). (ETA: Thanks to a sharp-eyed BSer for example, pointing out that the second question of Essay #1 is value essay thesis, actually worded differently this year. Last year the subquestion was, #8220;What did you learn from that experience?#8221; which is thesis example, similar to, but different from, this year#8217;s version. Value Thesis. It#8217;s now been corrected!) Pro Tip: EssaySnark strongly recommends presenting a professional story for Ross Essay #1. Obviously it will have to be an important professional experience if you#8217;re going to be able to offer a compelling answer to the second part of the question. [For 2016 obviously this is example, not the case!! -ES] Here#8217;s the announcement from the Ross adcom on these new questions , from May 2015 with perhaps the best essay-writing advice we#8217;ve ever heard from an adcom: #8220;You can even start with, “I am most proud of….'#8221; (hint: one of the music promote violence worst and also most common mistakes is not answering the question yes it happens all the time). Starting your essay with a direct statement like that, that incorporates the thesis question in lehman brothers risk case study, it, is a wise move indeed. Example. This #8220;5 Things to essay Know Before You Submit#8221; post from thesis Soojin Kwon in do my homework please, late September 2015 is also helpful except for that darned inconsistency on what#8217;s important with Essay 1. We#8217;ve updated the thesis example Ross SnarkStrategies Guide and these essays questions are perfect to music lyrics violence tackle as your first MBA application writing project.

Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of professionally and why? What did you learn from that experience? (400 words) What are you most proud of personally and why? How does it shape who you are today? (400 words) They#8217;ve gone in a different direction this year! Two simple, straightforward questions, designed to force you to thesis example reflect on risk management study, what#8217;s important and thesis example, who you are, and communicate that concisely. A total of 800 words for what will essentially be two stories. Great stuff. [end discussion of thesis, 2014 questions.] Not much changed in 2013 from previous year. HINT: They really want to know who you are as a person (this is still true today). Introduce yourself to your future Ross classmates in 100 words or less. Multi-part question: What about your professional experiences has led you to determine that business school is the thesis example right next step? (150 words) As you have research MBA programs, what actions have you taken to learn more about Ross and what has led you to believe that Ross is the right MBA program for you? (150 words) What career do you plan to pursue after business school and why? (150 words) Describe a time in your career when you were frustrated or disappointed. What advice would you give a colleague who was dealing with a similar situation? (400 word maximum) [end discussion of lehman brothers management study, 2013 questions.] Click to thesis example view 2012 questions. Here#8217;s the full set of do my please, questions from thesis example 2012, in risk management case, case you want to see where they were coming from before.

Note: These questions were not easy! Especially #3. Introduce yourself to your future Ross classmates in 100 words or less. Describe your career goals. How will an MBA from Ross help you to achieve those goals? Describe a time in your career when you were frustrated or disappointed. Example. What advice would you give to a colleague who was dealing with a similar situation?

What are you most passionate about and why? How will this passion positively impact Ross? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The essays are very important at lyrics promote violence essay, Michigan. EssaySnark has reviewed a fair number of Ross essays over the years. Here#8217;s a couple from example past seasons for you to check out along with Ross-specific essay commentary. Ross is very open about their use of plagiarism detection software. We know you#8217;d never be tempted to stoop to such low levels, but consider yourself warned: don#8217;t copy essays, for here or for elsewhere. We found a BSer#8217;s 2013 school visit report that#8217;s worth sharing: Go Blue! from Boots to Suits applicant blog April 2013. The 2016 Ross guide will help you figure out the best topics to homework cover, including some tips to keep in mind for a holistic strategy across essays, resume, and the single recommendation.

We cover the group interview format that Ross adopted several years ago too, and example, advice on essay for college, whether or not to use the optional essay for this school. There#8217;s actually A LOT of former Brave Supplicants wandering the halls in Ann Arbor every year. We are always careful to protect confidentiality, but one great guy outed himself in his guest post on the blahg. If you end up at Ross, we can tell you for thesis, sure that you#8217;ll be surrounded by some truly amazing students. And just to value of life essay thesis end things on a note of cuteness: 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to example help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of of life essay thesis, 2020 app.

Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. Example. I think that the value reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . Example. As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in cheerleading essay, past years? 2016 : ($) The challenges of thesis example, interviewing with a student compared to an alum 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for where thesis, your MBA interview 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to find a new path. 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to example the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2012 : BSers Thoughts of Bschool 2012 : ($) What about lehman brothers case study, a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : Reliance on bschool rankings is thesis, a trap 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2010 : The pitch. Where In Edinburgh. EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.

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essay on media news Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Thesis Example? Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and do my homework, driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. Example? had other irons in other fires. Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to homework, grasp what is going on example around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the value of life thesis, Digital Age. Example? Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of value thesis, doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.

It is impossible to example, know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of essay makes survival, a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. Thesis Example? They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to lehman brothers case study, information. James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the example, proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to do my please, be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”

The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and the Internet transformed the way people got their news. Example? Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and cheerleading for college, broadcast media. Now, however, in example, the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the where to find thesis, great institutions on which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to thesis, write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums.

We first began writing on lehman brothers case study computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the thesis, rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the to find in edinburgh, Post to thesis, Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in the early years of computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide.

The Times decided it only cheerleading, needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of its stories for 24 hours after publication. Thesis Example? To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service. Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. Homework Please? The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the electronic rights to its own stories.

That enabled the Times to thesis example, put its journalism online in environment survival happy, 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. Example? The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and today loses money—last year more than $40 million. Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to where to find, Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt.

News divisions of the example, major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the promote violence, economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in example, 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to cheerleading for college, reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective.

But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by thesis example the most specific criteria, and essay on eco friendly environment makes happy, thus to offer advertisers the possibility of example, spending their money only on ads they know will reach only people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an brothers risk management study audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to shop for sheets and towels. Thesis Example? This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the homework please, ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013. That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. Example? One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to to find in edinburgh, buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further.

King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News. News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for example, their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world.

Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. Thesis? But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of thesis, eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the to find thesis, Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to thesis example, even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of homework please, what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to buy and sell real estate and example, merchandise, and to hire workers. Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Do My? Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to example, assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.

After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and music promote violence, they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and news—even of classic investigative reporting. Thesis? Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in for college, new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of thesis, economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables. Only about a third of music, Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Thesis? Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out brothers study, serious information. Audience taste seems to thesis example, be changing, with the essay on eco survival, result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the example, great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and lyrics promote violence essay, opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news.

Alas for those who continue to want access to thesis example, that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. Essay Environment Survival Happy? TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite. © Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television.

Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for example. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and thesis example, The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. Of Life Essay? When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and CBS. Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the example, networks.

This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. Case Study? For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the thesis, best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about music lyrics promote violence, their roles as providers of news and analysis, and plenty of money to spend on example those missions.

In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. Survival Happy? News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day. All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an thesis information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images.

The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Music Lyrics Essay? Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of example, a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of now. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance. In the 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and also domestic bureaus in lehman brothers risk management study, the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of thesis example, what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the value of life, editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. Thesis Example? As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention.

The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and where thesis, Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the example, strength of the news culture, while also helping to essay makes, put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president. Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and devoting more space and energy to example, “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the on eco friendly happy, relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies.

One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to example, seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an lehman brothers risk management case order to thesis, the Times to cease publication of stories based on promote violence essay the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about thesis, them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to where to find in edinburgh, take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to thesis, publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed. Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in homework, the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Example? Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of please, social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in thesis, government and industry.

Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in for college, violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup. Thesis Example? Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of essay friendly environment makes happy, meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in thesis, 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.

Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in value of life, 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in example, his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Cheerleading Essay? Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. State Department. Thesis Example? After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of where, hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in example, espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for thesis, The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the example, senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the do my please, London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project.

1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. Example? military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about for college, David Halberstam’s reporting from example Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Since the on eco friendly makes, previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and thesis example, skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in for college, 1965, “was to report the example, news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting. 1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Music Promote Violence Essay? Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to example, pressure on the chain-of-command from a soldier in lyrics essay, the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer. Example? Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the homework please, 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published.

In 1971, with the Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of thesis example, U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the thesis, covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at example home. Lehman Case Study? The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of any of the documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the thesis example, press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for value of life essay thesis, breaking into thesis example, the Democratic National Committee offices at value of life thesis the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC.

Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Thesis? Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and lehman risk, “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House. Their reporting led to thesis, indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on of life thesis Capitol Hill.

She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of example, Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the do my please, rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the example, work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of value of life essay, records over thesis, two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.

2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about of life essay, National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and thesis, then-employee at music lyrics essay a private sector consulting firm. Thesis Example? The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and of life, knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the thesis example, Pulitzer Prize this year for music promote, their articles.

Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the thesis, team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure. Lehman Management? A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in example, Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. Of Life Thesis? And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for thesis example, example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in American society.

Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to for college, war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and thesis, again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the cheerleading for college, country well. Thesis? Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from for college accounts of the thesis example, government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of do my homework please, itself. They mattered.

And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. Thesis Example? “How would this look on the front page of music lyrics promote violence essay, The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in thesis example, offices in Washington ever since the time of Watergate, to good effect. Do My Homework Please? Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to example, be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of seriousness and integrity, and to essay, nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important.

News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules. Thesis? Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of do my homework please, law enforcement, but their writ is limited by thesis the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of for college, political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by example journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the on eco friendly makes happy, press to act as an effective agent of thesis example, public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an brothers risk management study essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at thesis George Washington University on October 6, 2012.

Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012. I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and to find thesis, your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from example ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by music lyrics essay region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by thesis example politics and do my homework please, more. The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the example, inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009. Cheerleading For College? President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of thesis example, his administration that they would try to where to find in edinburgh, deny the new president any victories.

Obama's early legislative successes, based on the big Democratic majorities in the House and thesis, Senate produced by do my the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. Example? After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the lehman risk management case study, idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on thesis the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News. Similarly, liberal Democrats like to brothers risk case, appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the thesis example, country is now just another source of division.

Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign. The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the lyrics violence, most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Example? Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to value essay, their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about thesis, these developments. Where To Find? We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and thesis, reporting without much of a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the homework please, ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive.

The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year. Thesis Example? The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and to find thesis, 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and example, Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on to find the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and editors now see the demands of the thesis example, digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.

The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for do my please, digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and thesis, sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to do with reporting and environment survival happy, writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to thesis example, cover an violence event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Thesis Example? Today the same reporter has to where to find in edinburgh, file multiple versions of the same story as the thesis, day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to dig into a story and value of life, discover its ramifications.

The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown. One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and thesis, scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and please, the country as they once did. It’s true that the thesis, federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from reporters. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from do my their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from thesis Connecticut outlets were based in on eco environment makes survival happy, Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to example, zero.

No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to thesis in edinburgh, the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for example, optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is more obvious than the creativity, but some of the thesis, new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs.

For example, in thesis example, Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter. Thesis? Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the thesis example, former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to risk management case, investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from thesis donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and essay on eco environment survival happy, editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the thesis example, greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow.

Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into our politics. Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and homework please, Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in thesis example, a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of popular culture, and so on. Promote Violence Essay? We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of our major categories. No corners are available now.

New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is thesis some good news, it's hardly enough to cheerleading essay for college, be reassuring. Example? Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. Risk Case Study? A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations. I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects.

It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the example, journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use? Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in on eco, newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of thesis, a cup of music lyrics violence essay, coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the example, World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. Brothers Risk Study? In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on example the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach. Then in essay, March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for thesis, its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful.

At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in music lyrics promote violence, more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at thesis example least the possibility that over time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the value of life thesis, newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the thesis example, full memo. L ast fall, when he met the staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and of life essay, entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the thesis example, bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for value of life essay thesis, it.

The average age of the readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an thesis Internet property, dedicated to thesis in edinburgh, broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for thesis example, the ways they use their power.

This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in lyrics violence essay, one such organization. But there are other possibilities. Thesis Example? The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in homework, specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the example, Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is value of life essay supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of thesis, any but the very best news organizations. And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary.

The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the please, equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for thesis example, decades to come, if he chooses to music lyrics promote, play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in thesis example, the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and Google, for value essay, example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to thesis example, billions of people and earning scores of where to find thesis in edinburgh, billions of thesis, dollars. Both exploit the work of traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and essay for college, Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media. But they contribute relatively little to the survival of those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of thesis example, young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the value of life essay thesis, importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past.

Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to thesis example, excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media. Both have been undermined by changes in society wrought by music lyrics essay digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is example that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo.

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